Parallel Session 1.1 (Conf Room 1)
SDI and Geospatial Enablement

UNGGIM Perspectives on Spatial Enablement
Amor Laaribi

abstract forthcoming

Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Manual for the Americas (78)
Paula McLeod (Ann Martin) and Simon Riopel, GeoConnections - Natural Resources Canada

The Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Manual for the Americas has been developed from the decisions and work of the Working Group on Planning (GTplan) of the Permanent Committee on Geospatial Data Infrastructure for the Americas (PC-IDEA). PC-IDEA was established based on resolutions of the 6th United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the Americas (UNRCC-A) in 1997, and operates under its guidance (PC-IDEA, 2012). The primary goal of PC-IDEA is to maximize the economic, social and environmental benefits of using spatial information, by exchanging knowledge, experiences and technologies of different countries, based on a common development model that allows for the establishment of an SDI in the Americas region.

GeoConnections (www.GeoConnections.NRCan.gc.ca), Natural Resources Canada, led the research and development of the Manual to address the needs of PC-IDEA member nations. GeoConnections is a national partnership initiative led by Natural Resources Canada focused on developing and enhancing the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI).

This Manual is intended to fill a gap in guidance for government officials and other stakeholders in the Americas in their efforts to plan, develop and implement SDI initiatives. It has been structured to cover the range of topics that affect the development of SDIs. Furthermore, the Manual has been designed to address several topics not covered by previous SDI manuals, including user-needs assessments, SDI governance, policy processes, and measuring and monitoring the impacts and benefits of SDIs. The Manual is based on existing best practices and case studies and highlights examples from PC-IDEA member nations. Although this Manual addresses needs of the Americas, it will also be of interest to others in the international SDI community.

Starting with basic SDI concepts, the reader is guided through the key infrastructure planning considerations of identifying users and their needs. The Manual then covers financing and the justification of SDI expenditures, the SDI fundamentals of making institutional arrangements, governance and organization, and strategic frameworks. Next, the basic SDI components of framework data, standards, policies and technologies are addressed. The reader is then introduced to considerations for SDI implementation, such as outreach and awareness and capacity building, and the use of case studies and good practice documentation for the sharing of knowledge. The Manual closes with a discussion of the role of measuring and monitoring in ensuring ongoing sustainability and adaptability of the infrastructure.

Analysing organisational levers of spatial enablement (216)
Ezra Dessers, Joep Crompvoets, and Geert Van Hootegem, KU Leuven

It is widely recognised that the effectiveness of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) depends on the uptake of spatial data use and sharing by organisations in support of their processes. In this paper, spatial enablement refers to the extent to which spatial data handling supports the overall objectives of an organisational process. Case study research findings are presented which indicate that the presence of an integrated (as opposed to fragmented) process in which the spatial data related activities are embedded, can be related to a higher level of spatial enablement of the process. The mode of dividing tasks and the way of allocating spatial data related activities within a process can thus be regarded as organisatonial levers of spatial enablement.

Moving Local Government GIS in Africa from Fallacy to Gain: a Public Economics Perspective (39)
Gift Dafuleya, University of Venda, ZA

There is no doubt that GIS can be of enormous benefit both to local governments and the societies they serve. Much of the impetus has come from international GIS suppliers and large local governments in the developed world, and rarely from African local governments that are at the heart of poverty and crime. A series of fallacies are shaping these developments: a financial concern on costs of developing GIS and the resulting return on investment; a technical concern that GIS applications requires specialised equipment, complex integration with several soft wares and municipal application; a local government political concern that GIS is useful only to engineering analyses and could lead to job losses. The articulation between these misconceptions and the different actors promoting them remain the barrier to GIS development. Key success to GIS development is expressed here not only in terms of enormous benefits that GIS can achieve, which are already known to both users and non-users of GIS products, but to moving local government GIS from fallacy to gain. This can possibly be achieved through initiatives that emerge from the same fallacies and respond to local conceptualizations and prioritizations of need. This article surveys literature to find such initiatives. To turn around the fallacy of financial concern into gain, there are “three don’ts” that local governments need to know. One, do not buy GIS hardware and software that the organisation is not yet ready to use. Two, do not expect to make money from selling data or services. Three, do not expect to get a budget share from municipal resources without showing value for the expense. On demystifying the technical concern, web-based GIS applications may be used as a precursor to proprietary GIS software applications. Here, municipal managers may also need to be constantly reminded that they routinely use some of web-based GIS applications without having an idea they are accessing a GIS database to find solutions to their queries. Also, this partly applies to fallacies from political concerns. Economic theory on production functions postulates that an increase in technology should increase employment. When this theory and what it proposes is understood and implemented by local governments in developing countries, fears of job losses thought to possible result from GIS as a technological tool will be alleviated.

Parallel Session 1.2 (Conf Room 3)
Enabling Citizens

Public Participatory GIS in Support of Citizen-Inclusive Collaborative Governance as Part of SDI (155)
Michael Sutherland, University of the West Indies, Titus Tienaah, University of New Brunswick, Amit Seeram, University of the West Indies, Bheshem Ramlal, University of the West Indies, Sue Nichols, University of New Brunswick

The terms Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS), Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS), Participatory Geographic Information and Multimedia Systems (PGIMS) and other similar terms refer to systems that manage spatial objects in “simple GIS technologies” (Corbett and Keller 2005). The terms are also used in relation to spatial models created through community-collaborative activities such those creating 3-dimensional physical spatial models. This paper uses the term PPGIS. All of these systems afford community groups and members opportunities to use digital or analogue spatial objects, described as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), to express views on phenomena affecting their communities. These expressions of local knowledge can augment, complement or verify governance decision making processes. VGI inputs to PPGIS can also together be important components of a locally relevant Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), especially in developing countries where information may be incomplete or unreliable. This paper describes a PPGIS prototype that processes VGI, and that can be part of SDI in a developing country. The prototype is capable of supporting citizen-inclusive collaborative governance.

Leveraging Google Earth Engine for Provision of Fire Disturbance Information in Eastern Zambia (123)
Lonesome Malambo and Conrad Heatwole, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech

The availability of geospatial information has increased dramatically over the years and huge amounts of data are collected each day. Earth observation satellites such as Landsat deliver several hundred gigabytes of data every day, and while free, the sheer sizes of such datasets create computing and storage difficulties even with improved capabilities of current personal computers. Recent developments in cloud computing applications such as the Google Earth Engine® can offer solutions to these difficulties by providing an online warehouse of satellite data such as Landsat imagery and superior computing capability needed to analyze the data. With the direct linkage to the Google Maps® service it is also possible to share and disseminate results thereby enabling governments, citizens and organizations to all participate in providing solutions to complex and expensive environmental challenges being faced today. The Google Earth Engine has potential to be exploited to supplement Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) efforts especially in developing countries where the capture of information and supporting infrastructure such as high performance computing may not be affordable. We demonstrate using our fire mapping research – which focuses on the provision of dynamic and land cover specific (i.e. in forests, cropland and wetlands) burned area information for fire management - how the Google Earth Engine can be leveraged for running user defined algorithms and visualization of results. We have developed a new Landsat-based multi-temporal method that maps burned areas within the fire season from June to November using a sequence of Landsat images. Results are based on our study area in the Magodi chiefdom in eastern Zambia and cover the years 2009 to 2012.

Concept of advanced decision-tree tool for selecting optimal participatory mapping method (76)
Jiri Panek, Jan Geletic, and Vit Vozenilek, Palacky University in Olomouc, CZ

Using geographic information systems in developing countries has been coined as an oxymoron for several reasons, mainly because of the historical burden of maps being used as a tool of control and technological dominance, largely by Western powers. Participatory approaches in mapping and GIS allow the combination of social responsibility and ethics with research and visualisation of local spatial knowledge. How should one choose the right method for participatory mapping or participatory GIS? The paper presents the introduction to the creation of an advanced decision-tree tool for selecting an optimal participatory mapping method.

The paper outlines the different methodologies used with participatory mapping and participatory GIS. Secondly, the paper shares the best practices of selecting the ideal method for a specific community. Thirdly, it suggests how advanced decision-tree and statistical tools can be used in the community mapping planning phase.

Tapping Slum Dwellers Knowledge to Improve Water Supply Delivery in Slums (157)
Mwehe Mathenge, Maseno University, KE

Water service providers are finding it increasing difficult to provide and manage water supply infrastructure in the increasingly complex informal urban environments. The traditional (engineering-oriented) water supply planning and management approaches in use today are deficient in addressing the challenges of growing water demand from the urban populations. On the other hand, the overreliance on modern knowledge (Scientific Knowledge) by professionals has proved inadequate in managing water supply problems as evidenced by increasingly shortfall of this commodity. However, slum dwellers possess significant knowledge that if integrated with other knowledge systems can greatly help in improving water supply and management decisions. Regrettably, it’s rarely used by professionals owing to lack of better methods and its inherent difficulty in integrating it with contemporary knowledge. Geo-Information technology (GIS) has not only immense capability of collecting slum dwellers knowledge but also integrating it with other knowledge systems to generate improved knowledge systems. It offers a mixture of geo-spatial information management tools and methods that helps in collecting, managing, analyzing and communicating spatial information to decision makers. Combining these two knowledge systems using GIS can greatly help service providers in making informed decisions in water supply and management thereby improving access, efficiency and service delivery.

The Temporal Quality of Community Mapping Data (229)
Mark Iliffe and Jeremy Morley, University of Nottingham, GB

Community mapping projects are currently underway across the world. As an emergent phenomenon, the combination of participatory mapping with wider community engagement combines to make invisible communities visible to a wider global audience. This paper looks at the temporal quality of community mapping projects, specifically considering the community mapping projects undertaken in Dar Es Salaam. Due to rapidly evolving nature of African cities the temporality of data is important, due to community mapping being conducted by the citizens themselves, a fair hypothesis is that the data produced should be timelier.

From a media perspective, community mapping ‘empowers communities’, Hagen (2011), however an interesting by product is the geospatial data produced. At first glance, the data produced consists of roads and pathways, however its depth and richness becomes apparent under closer inspection. Amenities and features like water taps, toilets, pharmacies, schools are among other points of interest that complement polygons demarcating land use, building outlines among many other features. This data quality can then be analyzed against its own characteristics and in comparison with a government released data, if such data is available against standards like ‘ISO:19113, Geospatial Quality Principles’.

The data produced in community mapping can be considered as volunteered geographic information, as the data is volunteered freely. Such examples of projects across Africa include the Map Kibera - Paar, and Rekittke (2011) - and Ramani Tandale - Iliffe (2011) - projects. VGI was a term coined by Goodchild (2007) around citizens sensing and creating their own spatial models. Turner (2006) also signals this shift in the democratisation of cartography, where due to the lowering of barriers and new technologies, maps can be created by a much wider set of contributors than ever before. The rise of movements like OpenStreetMap (OSM) facilitated this boom in VGI, with the use of OSM reaching into both commercial and governmental realms.

As such, the quality of VGI has been widely discussed. In particular, this has often taken the form of comparing OpenStreetMap, a ‘free wiki for maps’, with a data from an NMA or other data provider. A body of research already exists around resolving the question of quality between authoritative and crowd-sourced data (Haklay (2010), Zielstra and Zipf (2010)). Primarily the analysis has focused on topographic comparisons, however Mooney and Corcoran (2011) have suggested a further line of inquiry looking at non-topographic quality attributes like lineage and metadata. Further research in VGI has focused on internal logical consistency of the OSM data (e.g. looking at the change history of features) and topological correctness Girres and Touya (2010).

Missing from the literature is a thorough temporal assessment of VGI data. Across Africa, national mapping agencies (or other providers of authoritative and definitive spatial data) scant resources. Community mapping is mooted to fill this gap. However, a need exists for a thorough assessment of quality of data collected through the community mapping methodology, of which temporality is a key component.
Girres, J.-F., & Touya, G. (2010). Quality Assessment of the French OpenStreetMap Dataset. Transactions in GIS, 14(4), 435–459
Goodchild, M. F. (2007). Citizens as Sensors: The World Of Volunteered Geography. GeoJournal, 69(4), 211–221
Hagen, E. (2011). Mapping Change: Community Information Empowerment in Kibera (Innovations Case Narrative: Map Kibera). Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 6(1), 69-94.
Haklay, M. (2010). How good is volunteered geographical information? A comparative study of OpenStreetMap and Ordnance Survey datasets. Environment and planning B: Planning and design, 37(4), 682–703. Retrieved from
Iliffe, M. (2011). When Government 2.0 Doesn’t Exist?: Mapping Services In The Developing World. Proceedings of the 2011 AGI GeoCommunications Conference.
Mooney, P., & Corcoran, P. (2011). Integrating Volunteered Geographic Information into Pervasive Health Computing Applications. 5th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare (PervasiveHealth) and Workshops (pp. 93–100).
Paar, P., & Rekittke, J. (2011). Low-cost mapping and publishing methods for landscape architectural analysis and design in slum-upgrading projects. Future Internet, 3(4), 228-247.
Turner, A. (2006). Introduction to neogeography. O’Reilly Media, Inc.
Zielstra, D., & Zipf, A. (2010). A comparative study of proprietary geodata and volunteered geographic information for germany. 13th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science. Guimaraes, Portugal (Vol. 1, pp. 1–15)

Parallel Session 1.3 (Large Briefing Room)
Enabling Government Decision Making

GIS Based Assessment In Urban Facilities And Utilities Planning: A Case Of Nekemte Town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia (257)
Tadele Feyissa, Addis Ababa University, ET

This project is mainly concerned on GIS based assessment in urban facilities and utilities planning in Nekemte town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Application of GIS technology in urban facilities and utilities planning has recently absorbed attention and has a power of assessing already installed urban physical settings in harmony with demographic, spatial, local development plan and service demand directives. Keeping in the view of importance of GIS in urban planning, the study was conducted in Nekemte town where road transportation, water supply and consumption for domestics use and accessibility to fixed line telephone are characterized by shortfalls. The general objectives of the study is to create geodatabase for urban transport facilities, water supply lines and fixed telephone lines utilities, and to show their spatial arrangement by employing GIS technology. Specifically, the study is designed to create GIS database for road transportation network that enable to evaluate the existing network system in the study area, to show applications of GIS in urban utilities planning, to evaluate accessibility of water supply distribution using GIS in the study area and to analyze the spatial arrangement of fixed line telephone accessibility. Data for this project were obtained from CSA, Nekemte municipality, Ethio-telecom, and Oromia Water, Mineral and Energy Bureau. Documents attached to geospatial data as an attribute were obtained from East Wallaga zone Finance and Economic Development office, and Nekemte town Water, Mineral and Energy office. The collected data in CAD feature and raster image were georeferenced in ArcGIS environment and documents used throughout the analysis were adjusted to .dbf format to fit ArcGIS 10.1. Global Mapper 14.1 was used to indicate terrain patterns of the study area. The project revealed that GIS is a powerful tool to create geospatial database that help to address where shortages of urban facilities are prevailing. Accordingly, shortages of road networking in different corners of the town particularly away from the center flushed. The spatial distribution of water supply pipe lines was evaluated in terms of serviceability and significant parts of the town remained uncovered. The study also showed the outlying residential areas of the town have no access to fixed line telephone convenience. Therefore, the Nekemte municipality and other stake holders can use GIS technology for better utility management and planning. There is a need to construct road including Arterial Street, Collector Street and paved street. Extra water supply pipes and fixed telephone line expansion to distant new residential areas is also recommended to satisfy the existing demand.

Spatially enabling information to support livability: A Case Study from the North Melbourne Metropolitan Region Australia (218)
Serryn Eagleson and Abbas Rajabifard, The University of Melbourne

The importance of creating livable and sustainable urban environments is widely recognized, and may international city ranking and benchmarking system exist. The data required for planners to enact local change and support decision making remain isolated within different local and state government departments.

This project has developed an opensource platform in the context of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for accessing and distributing a series of integrated spatial datasets pertinent to the designing livable neighbourhoods including: transport networks, land valuation, health services and locations of employment. The project has integrated over 100 datasets from disperate sources and now provides them to support researchers from across Australia.

To demonstrate the value of integrated data four web-based tools have been developed. These tools include an agent based ped-catch’ modelling tool for assessing the walkability of neighbourhoods, a land supply tool to assess the development potential or land within close proximity of existing infrastructure, an employment clustering tool to assess the agglomeration and spatial clustering of jobs and a tool for the exploration of risk factors associated with Type 2 diabetes and healthcare locations. Using these tools the decision makers and users now have the potential to test different scenarios and ask questions to inform the livability of local areas.

The project has been supported by the Australian National Data Service (ANDS) and the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure (AURIN) and contributes to the national agenda for data sharing to improve research about urban environments.

Climate Change Impact on Urban Wind Risk Assessment in Singapore (88)
Kuay Lim Tian, National Environment Agency, Haiyan Miao, Institute of High Performance Computing, Durairaju Kumaran Raju, NUS, Geoffrey Davison, NParks, SG

Based on IPCC Climate Change Assessment Report 4, climate change is likely to lead to increased intensity of tropical storms. Make things worse, in urban areas, particularly those with densely aggregated, tall buildings provide wind tunnelling or channelling which can enhance local wind speeds dramatically, that are not observed in less built-up environments. Urban weather cannot be modelled without detailed understanding of the urban landscape and cities cannot plan for climate change and sustainable development without knowledge of atmospheric hazards and potentials. Cities which have understood and planned for locally-induced climate variation would have had a head-start in meeting global climate challenges. With the motivation for sustainable development and to better adapt to climate change, a case study, based on geospatial information and coupled with atmospheric and urban models, has been conducted to showcase the methodology for geospatial analysis and assessment of the impacts of climate change on wind risk in Singapore.

OMOLAND: A Spatial Agent-Based Modeling Approach to Climate Change Adaptation, Large-scale Land Acquisition, and Rural Household Dynamics (210)
Atesmachew Hailegiorgis and Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, George Mason University

Climate change and the current surge of large-scale land acquisitions (commonly called land grabbing) are becoming main concerns affecting the adaptive capacity of rural communities. Such communities face climate uncertainty and seasonal variability, which have direct effect on their livelihood as the majority of them rely upon on a rain-dependent agriculture system. Most of these communities use different adaptation mechanisms to prolong their livelihood, but the introduction of agri-business enterprises (both national and international origins) and the subsequent rapid change in land use system are challenging the traditional way of life. The resilience of such a system under future climate and socioeconomic uncertainty, and the complexity of the dynamics (i.e., heterogeneous actors/agents, nonlinear interactions, emergent micro-macro dynamics, and multiple spatiotemporal scales) pose a significant scientific challenge. Investigating the interaction of enterprises and rural communities, as well as the influence of commercialization of land on rural livelihoods and ecosystem, is key to improving policies for enhancing the well-being of rural communities and maintaining the sustainability of ecosystem functions and processes. Although many of the current agent-based models were tried to model the complexity of human-environment systems, they have not sufficiently addressed the influence of climate change and actors, such as enterprises and their interaction with local households, which could play a determinant role in shaping the dynamics of rural landscape. This study applies a spatially explicit agent-based modeling approach by representing major actors (enterprises, households and institution) and their interactions among themselves and with the environment in Southern Ethiopia. Besides its strong GIS integration for representing spatial features, the OmoLand model explicitly represents the socio-cognitive processes of rural household used in climate change adaptation. The underlying principles of household adaptive behavior were constructed based on a Model of Private Proactive Adaptation to Climate Change (MPPACC) by Grothmann and Patt (2005), based on UN standards. We believe our approach will complement current efforts aimed at integrating GIS and agent-based models for basic research and policy analysis, as well as provide a significant methodological thrust in computational social science and geospatial modeling.

Climate Change Hotspots Mapping: What Have We Learned? (289)
Alex de Sherbinin, CIESIN, Columbia University

In the past five years there has been a proliferation of efforts to map climate change "hotspots" -regions that are particularly vulnerable to current or future climate impacts, and where human security may be at risk. While some are academic exercises, many are produced as decision making tools, with the goal of drawing policy maker attention to regions that are particularly susceptible to climate impacts, either to mitigate the risk of humanitarian crises or conflicts or to target adaptation assistance. Hotspots mapping efforts address a range of issues and sectors such as vulnerable populations, humanitarian crises, conflict, agriculture and food security, and water resources. This paper offers a timely assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current hotspots mapping approaches, with particular reference to their utility for decision-making. It also highlights regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa that are anticipated, based on combinations of high exposure, high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity, to suffer significant impacts from climate change.

Parallel Session 1.4 (Caucus Room 11)
SDI Tools

Afromaison Discovery Broker : A new tool to discover and to access geoinformation resources in Africa (32)
Yaniss Guigoz, Pierre Lacroix, University of Geneva & UNEP/GRID-Geneva, CH and André Nonguierma, UNECA, ET

Access to geospatial data of high quality is a pre-requisite for many stakeholders involved in numerous fields of activities. The amount of geospatial data is quickly growing but these data are not necessarily easy to access as they are often « siloed » in different locations. This leads to a useless duplication of efforts because users tend to re-create data that already exist. When accessible, these data are often heterogeneous and hardly interoperable as they come from different disciplines and are based on different technologies, arrangements, protocols, and formats.

To tackle such problems, the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (EU FP7) EuroGEOSS project has proposed and adopted a brokering approach to implement multi-disciplinary interoperability : « users and data providers are not asked to implement any specific interoperability technology but to continue using their tools and publishing their resources according to their standards as much as possible ». EuroGEOSS has developed a framework to bind the heterogeneous resources published by data providers, adapting them to the tools commonly used by users.

In the context of the EU/FP7 Afromaison project (http://www.afromaison.net), this brokering approach has been implemented using the caching and mediation capabilities proposed by GI-cat to federate heterogeneous resources (data catalog and services). The so-called “Afromaison Discovery Broker” (http://afromaison.grid.unep.ch:8080/gi-cat) is a tool for facilitating the discovery of and access to heterogeneous resources in Africa (e.g. Earth Observation Data, geospatial data, climate data, reports). This broker allows one to link resources published by data providers of various disciplines, adapting them to the tools commonly used by data users. To achieve interoperability among various resources in such a multi-disciplinary framework, it is important not to change or impose interoperability arrangements within communities, but instead to try lowering entry barriers for both users and providers.

The Afromaison discovery broker will be hosted in Africa so that stakeholders in the continent can manage African data resources. With respect that the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) is providing regional focus and leadership for geospatial information management in Africa, it has established and important network of partners/stakeholders active in GIS/Spatial Data Infrastructure/Earth Observation in the continent. In addition, it maintains a clearinghouse on Africa related geodata resources. Therefore, UNECA represents a key enabler to support the adoption of interoperable solutions to share geospatial data and products, to raise awareness about the benefits of increased access on spatially-enabled services, and to create commitments and active contributions in enabling and facilitating the discovery and access to spatial data.

It’s believed that strengthening, extending and supporting UNECA with this discovery broker might (1) benefit UNECA’s network of stakeholders, (2) bring new and relevant/significant African geospatial resources in the broker, increasing their visibility and dissemination, and (3) be a major contribution to the recently created AfriGEOSS initiative aimed at reinforcing Earth Observation in Africa.

Enabling Spatial Analysis in a web browser (43)
Timo Aarnio and Jani Kylmäaho, National Land Survey of Finland

How many people live within 5 kilometers of a high school in a specific province? How does it compare to the national average? Which cities attract the people with higher education? How has the situation changed in ten years? This kind of questions concerning socio-economic development can be answered by accessing the spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including Web Processing Services (WPS) for spatial data analysis. The results of analysis can be visualized effectively by thematic mapping.

Modern browsers enable more and more computing. While some of the processing needed for executing spatial analysis can be done in a web browser, analyzing large amounts data in the browser produces a lot of overhead. To tackle this problem a balance between backend processing with WPS and frontend processing with JavaScript must be found.

The Finnish geoportal, Paikkatietoikkuna, is a service platform as well as a development and demonstration environment. The system is based on the Oskari platform, an open source code library and a project that aims to serve some advanced GIS tools as a web application. Applying a dual licensing scheme (EUPL and MIT) makes it possible for anyone to benefit from the resulting open source code.

The Finnish reference architecture for SDI is designed extending the European INSPIRE architecture in order to offer more functionality for data utilization. The reference architecture aims to describe how to build a spatial data infrastructure that supports not only viewing and downloading spatial data but also analyzing and visualizing data.

Enabling spatial data processing and visualization with a browser-based application brings a plethora of possibilities. End users need not install any additional software. The planning and decision-making for example will produce better quality outcomes when data and processes can be accessed through standardized network services and by using simple browser-based user interfaces.

User profiling methods for Data Quality Models (111)
Mesele Atsbeha Gebresilassie, Mekelle University, Institute of Geoinformation and Earth Observation Sciences, ET, Dr. Ivana Ivanova and Dr. Javier Morales, ITC, University of Twente, NL

Massive geo-spatial data with heterogeneous characteristics produced from multitude of sources is being shared via SDI. The ever increasing user types coupled with diversified characteristics towards using spatial data and understanding and interpreting its quality information are having easy access to the data. However, users are facing difficulty in determine suitability of the shared data for their purpose. This research aims at devising a mechanism for different users to enable to determine fitness-for-use and serve spatial data based on their quality. User-profiling technique is used to search for spatial data based on fitness-for-use. The ISO 19113 standard quality elements, usage information, and geographic bounding box for spatial extent are used by prioritizing quality elements based on users’ preference. Explicit and implicit methods of user profile construction are used to devise a user profiles based system for addressing fitness-for-use for different user types from any data quality model. The system enables spatial data users of different expertise level in GIScience, access spatial data that fits their required quality requirements or applications. It delivers spatial data searching and recommendation services based on its quality. The system is implemented in a prototype for a cadastre domain on data acquired from the Netherlands cadastre of the Overijssel province. The prototype can effectively find spatial data based on specified quality requirements or applications in order of the users’ preference. User profiles for spatial data search can provide enhanced means of determining fitness-for-use as it provides a flexible means of searching based on specific quality requirement, applications and specific preferences of users. Based on the prototype implemented, user profile techniques in spatial data quality have good potential in addressing the problems of determining quality of data. By thoroughly assessing users’ spatial data use behaviors, a better means of delivering spatial data for users based on its quality can be achieved despite the anecdotal users’ expertise level in GIScience in terms of its quality.

Utilizing Landsat Sidelaps to Monitor Global Agriculture by a Multi-Platform System (196)
Curt Reynold, US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), USA

New satellite imagery from Landst-8 became available to the world for free downloads on May 30, 2013, and hopefully the new Landsat-8 satellite will extend the 40-year historical Landsat imagery archive at the USGS Earth Explorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) by another ten years or more. Multi-spectral Landsat imagery with 30-meter spatial resolution became free in late 2008, which makes Landsat imagery an invaluable tool for global agriculture monitoring with it being free for the global community and having an unmatched historical record. One great improvement of the Landsat-8 satellite over Landsat-7 is approximately 400 images can be downloaded per day while Landsat-7 downloads are approximately 250 images per day.

The 16-day overpass frequency cycle from Landsat’s WRS (Worldwide Reference System) is one drawback for monitoring agriculture because it only enables approximately three “cloud free” Landsat images to be collected during a 120-day growing period, when a cloud-free threshold of 30 percent or less is assumed per image. In addition, for agro-climate zones having abundant clouds and rainfall such as in the tropics or in high mountainous area, less than three “cloud-free” Landsat images per growing season may be available for performing crop type classifications.

One method to monitor high intensity cropland regions with Landsat imagery approximately every 8-days is to utilize the Landsat sidelaps region, which is the extent of lateral overlap between Landsat images acquired over adjacent ground tracks. The Landsat sidelaps region is a design feature from Landsat’s WRS orbit, with Landsat sidelaps having more frequent temporal coverage than 16-days, or approximately with 8-days coverage. The surface area of Landsat sidelaps is least at the Equator and greatest at the poles, and comprises approximately 14 percent of the Landsat image near the Equator and nearly 100 percent at 54-degree latitude.

A global shapefile of Landsat sidelaps was developed by USDA/FAS and it estimates the percent of cropland within each Landsat sidelap region, as well the average day of year (DOY) when peak or maximum NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) occurs within a sidelap region. The percent of cropland within a Landsat sidelap was estimated by extracting the percent of cropland pixels defined by the 500-meter MODIS Land Cover Product from 2001-2010 (MCD12Q1, Version 5.1, at http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/modis_products_table/mcd12q1). The day of peak NDVI within a Landsat sidelap region was estimated by utilizing the global 30-year average Day of Peak NDVI data layer developed by the NASA sponsored Vegetation Index Phenology (VIP) project (at http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer.php).

Finally, Landsat sidelaps can be more closely monitored with multi-platform imagery such as classifying cropland type within sidelap regions from high-resolution imagery obtained during the average peak NDVI period or constructing MODIS-NDVI time-series graphs (i.e., 2001-present) from the 250-meter resolution cropland MODIS-NDVI time series database provided by NASA/USDA-FAS (at http://glam1.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

Parallel Session 1.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Geospatial Research Reports: Vegetation, Soil & Mineral
Moderator: tba

Agroclimatic Zonation For Clone Cassava In Nigeria: A Gis-Based Approach (79)
Oluwagbenga O.Isaac Orimoogunje, Akinola Shola Akinwumiju and Moses Bamidele Adewole, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NG

The study modelled an agro-climatic zonation for cassava production in Nigeria and maps the regions of Nigeria on the basis of the similarity of soil conditions and their suitability potentials for cassava production. It also assessed the pattern of yield-climate and yield-soil relationships across the agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. This was with a view to undertaking climate-edaphic zonation for cassava in Nigeria using the tools of Geographic Information System. Climatic data for 61 stations across the six agro-ecological zones of Nigeria for 2003/04 planting season, elevation data and cassava yield data and their climatic requirements were integrated for this study. The computed values of climatic parameters, the elevation data and the Cassava Yield Data were all converted to point data in ArcGIS environment. 3D Analyst tools were employed to generate Raster Surfaces from the Climatic, Elevation and Soil Data. Using the Math Modules, agro-climatic and edaphic suitability surfaces were generated in ArcGIS environment. The resulting Scores were used to determine the Suitability Ratings of the delineated Zones. The result shows that soil conditions exert more influence on cassava yield performance than climatic conditions while Guinea Savanna and Dry Rainforest Zones constitute the most favourable locations for cassava production in Nigeria. The study concluded by revealing the research potentials inherent in Geographic Information System and the consequent development in the developing World.

Secondary Succession and Dynamics of Wetland and Riparian Vegetation of Asaba-Onitsha River Niger Corridor Using Geospatial Techniques (106)
Ugo Henry Okeke, O. Ezekiel Eguaroje, NASRDA-Advanced Space Application Laboratry South West OAU Campus, Ile-Ife, NG and Seidu O. Mohammed, National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) Abuja, NG

Wetlands and their riparian vegetations are natural ecological resources that are marked invaluable all over the world and vital for sustainable environment and the general eco-system. This work studied the dynamics and alteration of wetlands/riparian vegetation as a base for wetlands management and sustainable green environment around the Asaba-Onitsha River Niger corridor.
The area extent of wetlands was mapped, the rate of change was determined and the wetland vegetation quality using NDVI was ascertained. The data sets used include: Landsat TM 1987, Landsat ETM 2001 and 2004 satellite images, while other secondary data include: topographic, soil, geology maps and DEM covering the study area. The data from groundtruthing combined with visual image interpretation were used for supervised classification of the imageries with an average kappa coefficient and overall accuracy of 0.94 and 95.7% respectively. Six Landuse/ Landcover classes were identified; these were built up, wetland/riparian vegetation area, upland vegetation, sand deposit, water body and bare surfaces. The different data sets were overlaid and interpolated to delineate the wetland area while decision tree algorithm was used to determine the NDVI value of the riparian vegetation area over the period of study (1987-2004). The result showed significant changes in the wetland area in relation to other landuse. The wetland area decreased from 326.625km2 in 1987 to 128.6905km2 in 2002 with continual negative magnitude of change and annual frequency of change of -197.9348km2 and -7.917km2 respectively which means that an average of 8km2 of wetland area are altered annually. The NDVI value of the riparian vegetation that ranges from +0.27 to -0.09 shows that the vegetation quality is at the decrease, indicating a tempered ecosystem and rapid secondary succession which are attributed to factors majorly anthropogenic. The study recommended that environmental regulation, education and wetland conservation should be given top priority.

Modeling Soil Nitrogen Balance Using Geographical Information Systems And Remote Sensing: The Case Of Lower Bilate River Basin, Southern Ethiopia (224)
Andualem Aklilu, Ethiopian Civil Service University, ET

The consideration of soil fertility decline primarily referred to the exploitation of soil nitrogen. Nitrogen could be added to the soil via Commercial fertilizers, Organic inputs, Biological nitrogen fixation and Deposition. Conversely, it may be lost from the soil through Leaching, Erosion, Denitirification, Crop yield harvest and Crop residue removal. The study area was located in lower Bilate River basin within the Ethiopian rift valley which was characterized by an arid climatic condition with an erratic and unreliable rainfall characteristic. The core objectives of this research were modeling of the soil nitrogen balance and the plant available stock soil nitrogen by using a spatially explicit methodology of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems. Moreover, the uncertainties and source of errors were assessed. To accomplish the mentioned objectives the study had integrated various primary and secondary data from various sources. The main inputs were digital soil map, Landsat-ETM+ satellite imagery, SRTM data, Rainfall data, and Agricultural data. The basic methodology of Stoorvogel and Smaling (1990) was adapted for soil nutrient balance estimation while the plant available stock soil nitrogen was determined using simple empirical relations. The research found out that in general croplands are endowed with lower amount of plant available stock soil nitrogen than non croplands. The addition of Commercial fertilizers like DAP and Urea were the main inflows in maize land while the fertilizer NPK was the major source of inflow in tobacco farm. Animal manure was the main source of nitrogen inflow in lands of Sweet potato, Cotton and Bush and Scattered shrub land. Harvested crop yield was the major source of nitrogen loss in crop lands. The removal of crop residues was the second most important source of nitrogen outflow in the area followed by Denitirification and Erosion. The soil nitrogen balance modeling revealed that 6 % of the area was very strongly depleted (> 40 N), 31 % was strongly depleted (20-40 N), and 61 % was slightly depleted (< 20 N). Flows such as Commercial fertilizer, Harvested yield and Residue removal were the possible sources of errors in the final soil nitrogen balance estimation. Land and water management technologies which maximize inflows of nitrogen while reducing the outflows like addition of Commercial and Organic fertilizers as well as soil and water conservation structures were the possible remedial measures that could alleviate soil fertility decline.

Mineral Prospectivity Evaluation by Artificial Neural Networks and GIS - Methodology, Case Studies, Experiences (194)
Andreas Knobloch, Andreas Barth, Marco Roscher, Beak Consultants GmbH, DE, Svetlana Arkhipova, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Kwame Boamah, John Duodu, Geological Survey Department, GH, Michael Biryabarema, Hildebrand Kanzira, Rwanda Natural Resources Authority

Artificial neural networks (ANN) are a comprehensive data-driven modelling approach for creation of mineral predictive maps. Based on a “self-learning” process, this artificial intelligence (AI) technology can be used to interpret almost any geo-scientific data for generation of both qualitative (prediction of locations) and quantitative (prediction of locations, grades, tonnages) mineral predictive maps. By analysing the footprints of known mineralisations in the framework of available geo-scientific data, the approach generates trained ANN`s that are further used to generate predictive maps.
The technology provides excellent results if the genetic connections between the training input information and the target mineralisation are known. In this case, the existing knowledge can be used for preparation of model input data: e.g. separation of favourable lithologies, tectonic structures and stratigraphic units from the database (e.g. geological maps). On the other side, the approach is very helpful to analyse mineralisation-controlling features and better understand the spatial distribution of mineral occurrences: by stepwise adding of single datasets, the controlling parameters can be understood and used for compilation of genetic models and concepts. In reality, usually a mix of the above procedures is used. By including geochemical and geophysical data as well as their derivatives and comparing them with geological and tectonic structures, the approach is able to use an almost unlimited amount of independent datasets for its calculations.
The resulting predictive maps can be used as key instruments for the future attraction of investment and development of the mineral and mining sector of the specific area/country. In addition, these mineral predictive maps contribute to land-use planning activities.
This paper describes the background of the ANN-technology, describes methodologies of data processing and preparation, and discusses and presents by several case studies on how the technology can be applied successfully: In Rwanda, the approach is used to generate national predictive maps for tantalum, niobium, tin and gold. In Ghana, the approach is applied to produce predictive maps for gold.

Parallel Session 2.1 (Conf Room 1)

A review of roads data development methodologies (144)
Alex de Sherbinin, CIESIN, Columbia University, US, Taro Ubukawa, Geospatial Information Authority, Japan, Harlan Onsrud, University of Maine

There is a clear need for a public domain data set of road networks with high special accuracy and global coverage for a range of applications. The Global Roads Open Access Data Set (gROADS), version 1, is a first step in that direction. gROADS relies on data from a wide range of sources, and developed using a range of methods. Traditionally, map development was highly centralized and controlled by government agencies due to the high cost or required expertise and technology. In the past decade, however, high resolution satellite imagery and global positioning system (GPS) technologies have come into wide use, and there has been significant innovation in web services, such that a number of new methods to develop geospatial information have emerged, including automated and semi-automated road extraction from satellite/aerial imagery and crowd sourcing. In this paper we review the data source, methods and pros and cons of a range of road data development methods: heads-up digitizing, automated/semi-automated extraction from remote sensing imagery, GPS technology, crowd sourcing, and compiling existing data sets. We also evaluate the degree to which each method can contribute to open source data sets.

Google Maps : Africa Experience (129)
Evans Arabu, Google, KE

The quest to create comprehensive, accurate and easy-to-use Google Maps in Africa started about 4 years ago. From basic maps of major roads to detailed maps in many African countries, cities and towns, these maps have since evolved to include local domains, driving and walking directions, traffic information, Street View imagery in South Africa and Botswana, and turn by turn GPS navigation in South Africa, Algeria and Tunisia. By sourcing information from local businesses, governments, partner providers and of course, our volunteer Map Maker community, our road coverage has increased from 20% in 2008 to 75% in 2012, and the the number of towns and villages mapped has grown by 1000 percent.

We've also been hard at work in various companies across the continent . It is possible to easily get addresses and directions by searching for any of the companies or services such as bank branches, ATMs, POS outlets, eateries, telcos service centres and petrol stations on Google Maps and Google Maps for Mobile.
With Map Maker launched in every country on the continent, we've also witnessed the growth of a vibrant mapping community, with more than 100,000 unique editors contributing upwards of 2 million changes to Google Maps of Africa. Successful events have includes students' mapping events in Gauteng South Africa, the Rwanda tourism Map Up focused on the hospitality industry, ladies' mapping events in Uganda and Ghana, Map Ups in Northern Kenya and Cote d'Ivoire, events led by the by National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) working with EGreen services in Nigeria, and campus efforts led Africawide by Google student ambassadors.

In the paper , we will be highlighting the tremendous impacts maps have on the users . Some of the features will be looking into include :
Street view : Immersive maps experience
Mapmaker : Keep the information fresh and up to date
Maps engine : maps at the enterprise level
Earth engine : A planetary-scale platform for environmental data & analysis

Building spatially-enabled databases for spatial enablement of the all-mode transport infrastructure master plan in Africa (42)
Girum Asrat, Meron Kinfemichael, Andre Nonguierma, Aster Denekew, UNECA

The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) has been developing geospatial databases for the African Regional Spatial Data Infrastructure on the one hand, and of the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure on the other, to provide data, standards and geoinformation applications for Africa's development programmes as defined by the African Union Commission and other development partners. One of the themes of this spatial data resource is the database on infrastructures in Africa. Such a spatially-enabled database is required for orderly and systematic planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the infrastructure systems as defined by the African Union Programme on Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA).
The paper presents the various steps undertaken to generate a well-structured and comprehensive geospatial data foundation on infrastructures status, distribution and gaps that contribute to improving the knowledge of infrastructures connectivity in Africa at different levels: national, regional, continent-wide. The database covers all existing and planned infrastructure facilities in the continent, including all transport networks and development corridors (railways, airports, roads, ports, harbors, and waterways) as well as energy plants and systems networks and telecommunication infrastructures.
The geospatial databases also include visualization tools as well as analytical and query functionality to present information to decision makers to assist the assessment and monitoring of the infrastructure systems. With such visualization facilities, the system helps decision makers to choose appropriate interventions in terms of resources allocation, infrastructures prioritization and long-term planning needed to improve the regional integration.

Parallel Session 2.2 (Conf Room 3)
Monitoring & Management

Astrium Constellation Supporting Mapping, Cadastre And High-Speed Urban Change Monitoring (177)
Charlotte Gabriel-Robez, Jean-Louis Bellan, Astrium Services, FR

With three satellites launched in less than a year and two more launches expected for 2014, Astrium Services has begun writing another chapter in its 30-year story of providing Earth observation imagery and information. In the former days, Spot Image had already explored the track of the constellation, packaging when required the information derived from radar satellites such as ERS, ENVISAT together with optical data of various resolution and swath, from the SPOT family but also from Formosat-2 and Kompsat-2. The rationale was easy: using which ever relevant sensor to bring from space the answer to the user's question. However, these kinds of compositions were rather done on a project basis.

When Astrium decided to sign in for the financing of SPOT 6/7, the strategy was simple: bringing this smart but still empirical practice to a more professional level, standardizing and leveraging the benefits that could bring the constellation to the market and the users. Indeed, the radar component was already embedded in the former Infoterra GmbH branch. The optical very-high-resolution part was there with Pléiades, funded by CNES, and for which Spot Image had been granted the civilian operations and distribution worldwide. Funding SPOT 6 and 7 was not only the guarantee of SPOT 5's follow up, but also a very smart space segment, that would bring daily capacity of revisit in high (1,5 m) and very high (50 cm) resolutions as the four (Pléiades 1A, 1B and SPOT 6 and 7) were to be phased on the same orbit, 90° apart from each other.

Pléiades 1A, SPOT 6 and Pléiades 1B have been successfully orbited over the last year and do already provide now products to a wide community of users. Two more satellites are awaited early 2014: SPOT 7 and PAZ. PAZ, a twin of TerraSAR-X, will reinforce radar performances and services, as improving revisit time, service reliability and increased data acquisition capabilities.

The overall aim of this paper is to describe the benefits of the innovative features of Astrium Constellation, so as to assess their combined potential in mapping / cadastre and urban change monitoring. Specific care will be brought to describe the accuracy of the resulting maps and the reactivity / revisit enabled by the systems.

Based on real-life examples, the paper will lead the analysis on the performances and possibilities offered by the different imagery products (possibly combined and even “hybridated”) for mapping / cadastre and land information systems: achievable scales, feature classification, coverage capacity and 3D modelling (including different generation methods for radar and optical).

The presentation will end with a summary of the benefits of the constellation features for intensive monitoring of fast-growing cities and rapid post-damage assessment mapping. The analysis will be extended in the perspective of SPOT 7 and PAZ launches, highlighting the advantages of the high revisit frequency offered by this variety of sensors, coherently operated to guarantee the right level information at the right time.

Analyzing Spatial Urban Growth using GIT. Case of Rwamagana Town, in Rwanda (140)
Alpha J Bosco Mbarushimana and Theodomir Mugiraneza, National University of Rwanda, RW

Various approaches for analyzing spatial urban growth exist including quantitative techniques, time series animation and GIT. This paper aimed at analyzing the spatial urban growth of Rwamagana Town in the Eastern Province of Rwanda between 1978 and 2012 using GIT and investigating the probable driving forces explaining the land use changes in the study area. Aerial photos of 1978, ortho-photos of 2008 and topographic map of 1988 were used to detect urban land use changes. The abovementioned techniques were completed by field data collection. Structured interviews were conducted to urban land use managers and households. One hundred and twenty households selected from three sampled wards within the study area were questioned. The sample was determined by systematic sampling technique. Urban growth and land use change have been analyzed by using GIS software and statistical analysis. The results showed that the total built-up area expanded by 73% between 1978 and 1988 with average annual growth rate of 7.3 %; and by 71% between 1988 and 2008 with average annual growth rate of 3.5 %. The grouped settlements expanded significantly by 112 % between 1978 and 1988 with average annual growth rate of 11.2 % and by 77% between 1988 and 2008 with average annual growth rate of 3.8 %. Findings revealed that the paramount nature of land use changes in Rwamagana town had been the conversion of agriculture and woodland areas to built-up areas. Factors such as infrastructure improvement, seeking security, settling near workplace and affordable cost of land explain the dramatic extension of Rwamagana town. The use of aerial photographs coupled with GIS techniques was found efficient in monitoring spatial urban growth.

Development of an Atlas and Toolkit for Integrated Urban Water Management in Africa (235)
Frank Kizito, Seneshaw Tsegaye, Krishna Khatri, Jochen Eckart, Kebreab Ghebremichael, Kalanithy Vairavamoorthy, Patel College of Global Sustainability, University of South Florida, US

This paper describes the development of an Atlas and associated Toolkit to facilitate the assessment of the potential for cities in Africa to implement Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) strategies. The overall objective is to enhance the capacity of donors, implementation agencies, municipalities and utility managers to make informed decisions about where to invest in the implementation of IUWM strategies within emerging cities in Africa.
It is widely recognized that the world is fast urbanizing, and most of this urbanization is taking place in developing countries. At the same time, there is a wide array of future change pressures that threaten to compound the challenge of matching rapid population growth and urbanization with appropriate infrastructure. Whereas conventional urban water management seeks to ensure access to water and sanitation services and adequately manage wastewater and stormwater discharges, IUWM goes further to recognize and integrate water sources, water use sectors, water services, and water management scales. It is considered that a paradigm shift towards the adoption of IUWM is critical for the sustainability of future cities.
It is challenging to retrospectively implement IUWM strategies in large, well established megacities, owing to entrenched institutional practices and rigid, fully developed infrastructure that would be very costly to retrofit. However, there exists a window of opportunity to apply IUWM within small and mid-sized emergent cities, where the infrastructure and prevailing institutional frameworks are still flexible enough to accommodate change, and where, indeed, the most urbanization is predicted to occur in the future.
In light of this, an Atlas to determine the potential of cities in Africa for IUWM is being developed. Based on a dynamic, city-scale assessment of IUWM indicator values, the Atlas helps identify cities where the implementation of IUWM strategies would most likely result in sustainable improvements in urban water management, thus being best suited for the up-scaling of IUWM interventions. The foundation of the Atlas is publicly available datasets from various agencies, combined with local city-specific data. Data processing is through the use of geospatial tools and data mining techniques. Coupled to this, multiple-objective, multi-criteria decision analysis is undertaken to assess and rank cities in terms of their suitability for implementation of IUWM strategies.
Two categories of analyses are carried out. First, the cities are evaluated to determine to what extent they are facing current and future challenges requiring the application of IUWM strategies. Factors such as water scarcity, gap of sanitation coverage, pollution of water sources, and expected future change pressures are used to assess the need and urgency to implement IUWM strategies. Second, to evaluate the opportunity for implementation, the existing institutional, economic and regulatory frameworks within the cities are assessed and compared. As a result of these analyses, the Atlas helps identify typologies of urban centres in Africa that provide differing potential for implementation of IUWM strategies. The ranking and typology of cities is presented on a dynamic, interactive, web-based mapping platform, which is coupled with a Toolkit of associated analytical and modelling tools for IUWM scenario analysis.

Interactions between population dynamics, land use changes and malaria incidence in Kigali, Rwanda: added value of geospatial techniques for identifying urban malaria hotspots (263)
Jean Pierre Bizimana, National University of Rwanda, RW, Stefan Kienberger Kienberger, University of Salzburg, AT, Emmanuel Twarabamenye, National University of Rwanda, RW

Despite the achievements in reducing malaria burdens in Sub-Saharan Africa, malaria epidemiology is changing due to environmental and socio-economic changes. Malaria is increasingly clustered in areas where populations share the same demographical, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. As Kigali City urbanized, new migrants settled near the irrigated lands and marshlands. These locations created a conducive environment for human and malaria mosquito's interactions. In addition to the modified local ecology by unplanned urbanization, inadequate drainage and poor housing quality in peri-urban areas allowed little protection from mosquitoes. Malaria transmission may therefore be associated with location, clustered around breeding sites, and then transmitted within certain distances from them.

The study aimed to demonstrate the added value of geo-information tools and methodologies to map out the malaria-prone areas that are associated with rapid urbanization in Kigali. Population changes have been investigated from local planning policies. Climate variability with regards to malaria was analyzed from time series of climatological variables and malaria cases. A digital elevation model was created to show the lower lands susceptible to vector breeding habitats. Health centre catchment areas were delineated by cost allocation analysis and then malaria cases were visualized to highlight malaria-prone areas. Land uses, land cover, vector breeding sites and households' locations were digitized from aerial photograph. The spatial interpolation was used to generate the environmental covariates of malaria transmission at household level to highlight the household's exposure to malaria. The hotspots of malaria were identified and the number of exposed people was estimated.

The information on malaria patterns, urban land uses, vector breeding sites and exposed populations can permit malaria control to be targeted towards the foci of transmission and malaria-prone areas. Such targeting can effectively increase the malaria interventions at local and household levels, leading to efficient urban malaria elimination in Rwanda.

ILWIS Open Toolbox plug-ins for efficient atmospheric, land and marine data retrieval and processing (21)
Ben Maathuis and Chris Mannaerts, Department of Water Resources, Faculty ITC - University of Twente, NL

Access to Geo-Information, from in-situ, air - or space borne platforms and derived products, for various thematic applications, is greatly enhanced through efforts by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and their GEONETCast telecommunication based data dissemination system. Currently near real time satellite based observations are at disposal of the user community within minutes after recording, as is the case for high temporal Meteosat Second Generation geostationary observations, without the need for internet connectivity. Next to this, the World Wide Web is providing a large collection of geo spatial information like near real time in situ data, satellite images and various time series geospatial products, both derived from image data directly or in conjunction with models.
To integrate this information for further GIS processing and analysis, ILWIS open source toolbox plug-ins have been developed to efficiently retrieve and pre-process the data. This capability is freely available to the user community through the Earth Observation Community portal hosted by 52North.org and builds on the extensive image processing and GIS capability which is already offered by the ILWIS Open package. For further information and access to the tools see the 'Earth Observation' and 'ILWIS' communities at http://52North.org.
The paper is further elaborating on the freely available data within GEONETCast as well as the internet which can be processed using the routines developed as plug-ins or as additional script routines.

Parallel Session 2.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)
Enabling Collaboration

Collaboration Platform for Sustainable Development (85)
Chih-Hong Sun, Chinese Taipei GIS Center, Chin-Te Jung, Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research, Min-Fang Lien, Chinese Taipei GIS Center, Vladimir Tikunov, Moscow State University, RU, Rong-Kang Shang, National Chinese Taipei University

Sustainable development is the common vision for modern society. However, how to achieve the sustainable development vision is still a major challenge for many government agencies. But one thing is clear that sustainable development cannot rely on government only, public participation and action is the key to reach the vision of sustainable development. Public participation and action relies on the information sharing for all levels of decision makers. Therefore, this project proposes a Collaboration Platform for Sustainable Development (COPSD) using public participation geographic information system methodology which is based on the sharing of government controlled geospatial information to create a spatially enabled society. COPSD provides an easy access to geospatial information for all level of decision makers to identify the problems and locations related to environmental, economic development, and social justice issues. The environmental, economic development, and social justice issues are classified into 25, 22, and 26 different tasks respectively. COPSD is based on a user friendly geospatial visualization system which use Google map to integrate and overlay all kind of geospatial information provided by government agencies using OGC international geospatial web service standards. All level of stakeholders can choose one of the 73 tasks and propose a particular action plan related to that chosen task on COPSD by identifying the location and put a marker on Google map. A red color marker indicates this is a new proposed action plan. A yellow color marker represents the proposed action plan is under execution. While a green color marker indicates the proposed action plan has been achieved its proposed goals. Volunteers are invited to join the new proposed action plan by registering on the COPSD. The achieved results of a particular action plan can be documented on the COPSD. It is hoped that COPSD will eventually become a knowledge and experience sharing platform for all the sustainable development action plans executed by local governments and local communities around the world.

NSDI initiatives: an opportunity for National Mapping institutes to highlight the role they are to play (212)
Aude Areste Lamendour and Christophe Dekeyne, IGN France International

NSDI projects are commonly considered as a cornerstone in the economic development of emerging countries. Geographic information only acquires value when it is organized, structured and shared. This is the objective of having a NSDI implemented.
Having this in mind, several countries have tried to initiate them but failed or gave up after a while. Initiating a NSDI project is complex and ambitious and too often, political and technical difficulties are underestimated.
It is to be recalled that beyond technical tools, the implementation of a spatial data infrastructure is truly a philosophy that is to be widely disseminated. Without the commitment of the highest levels of government, the NSDI project will be slow to start and shortly will become cumbersome. Therefore it is essential to replace the NSDI initiative in a national strategy. It is important to stress that a NSDI project must be a part of a global framework such as a national development policy. Without this, it will become very difficult to mobilize the various institutions involved in this kind of projects and the sufficient financial resources to make this project a reality.
It is also very important to highlight the role the national mapping institutes are to play in the NSDI implementation process. Considering the challenges to meet, the National mapping institutes must be at the heart of the initiative:
o Lack of mapping knowledge of public decision-makers
o Ignorance of the existing data due mainly to their scarcity and their dispersion,
o lack of standards applied to the produced data, resulting in their poor interoperability,
o lack of synergy and cooperation between the agencies that produce data, causing redundancies and additional costs
The objective of this presentation is to consider how NSDI initiatives can be an opportunity for National Mapping institutes to highlight the major role they are to play.
Concrete examples in Gabon that is currently implementing its National Spatial Data infrastructure will be given.

IGN France International, subsidiary of the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN), is recognized worldwide as a key player in geographic information engineering. It is involved in the setting up of projects, among which NSDI projects, and offers its expertise to foreign policy makers and French companies that are active in export.

Comments: IGN France International, subsidiary of the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN), is recognized worldwide as a key player in geographic information engineering. It is involved in the setting up of projects, among which NSDI projects, and offers its expertise to foreign policy makers and French companies that are active in export.

Method of Context-Aware Recommender System Based on Ontologies (87)
Guillermo González Suárez, GEOCUBA Enterprise Group, Tatiana Delgado Fernández, High Polytechnic Institute Jose Antonio Echeverria, ISPJAE, José Luis Capote Fernández and Rafael Cruz Iglesias GEOCUBA Enterprise Group

This paper focuses on developing a method of hybrid context-aware recommender systems, based on ontologies in the environment of the Spatial Data Infrastructure, which will positively impact the effectiveness of decision-making and raise the capacity for analysis in the applications for mobile users. The method developed has three phases: data and semantic framework, other that implements the recommendation system and another responsible for displaying the recommendations. The recommendation system phase implements a spatial, a semantic and collaborative filters. The recommendations generated show the elements of potential interest, these can be displayed in tabular or combined with spatial information. It was found through an experiment and different metrics applied the increase in its effectiveness for mobile users according to their preferences as to the recommendations given in a spatial environment.

Parallel Session 2.4 (Caucus Room 11)
Risk and Security

Development of a Hydraulic Model for the Kavango River for Improved Disaster Risk Management in Namibia (7)
Alex Muluti MudabetI, University of Namibia and Kelebogile Mfundisi, Polytechnic of Namibia

The impacts of flooding can be effectively managed if scientists, policy makers and communities work together. Flood mapping provides an opportunity for hydrologist and geospatial scientists to engage society in disaster risk management. Namibia is experiencing persistent flooding events in the north and north eastern parts of the country since 2008, costing government millions of dollars on infrastructure and livelihood of the affected people. The objective of this research was to develop a preliminary static time series steady flow hydraulic model for the Kavango River, which can subsequently be upscaled to other river basins in Namibia for improved disaster risk management. HEC RAS geometry is used to develop the model in an ArcGIS environment using a 50m DEM. It is found that the flood line results have an average accuracy of 23.96 m when overlaid on GPS survey points. The study also reveals that at minimum river flow (100m3/s), the surface area covered by water is roughly 196.748 km2. At 600m3/s, the surface area changes to 459.836 km2, representing an increase of 263.088 km2. At the highest flow rate of 1030m3/s recorded for the river, the surface area is 596.866 km2. It is also found that the Kavango River is sensitive to any slight changes in river roughness. In conclusion, the hydraulic model developed gives useful preliminary results for vulnerability assessment and therefore could be upscaled to other river basins in Northern Namibia.

Geo-risk in Central Africa: GIS integration of multi-hazards and vulnerability to support risk management (167)
Caroline Michellier, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Hans-Balder Havenith, Université de Liège, Matthieu Kervyn, Matthieu Kervyn , Vrije Universiteit Brussel, BE, Nicolas d'Oreye, National Museum of Natural History - European Centre of Geodynamics and Seismology, LU, Théodore Trefon
Royal Museum for Central Africa, BE, Eléonore Wolff, Université Libre de Bruxelles, BE, François Kervyn, Royal Museum for Central Africa, BE

GeoRisCA is a project which aims at studying the geo-risk in the Kivu region (DRC, Rwanda, Burundi), in order to support regional and local risk management. The approach developed in GeoRisCA combines and synthesizes the spatial analyses of (1) the multiple geo-hazards which occurred in the region, and (2) the vulnerability of the threatened elements.

Throughout the area, the potential for geo-hazards occurrence is high and remains unquantified. The population is at risk of landslides triggered by geodynamical processes like climate and/or seismicity. The region is also characterized by a strong seismicity due to its location in the East African rift valley. In addition, the two most active African volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, endanger the area: lava flow can directly impact the ~700.000 inhabitants of Goma city, located ~15 km to the south, as it was the case in 2002; the permanent plume may affect human health on the long term; mazuku (CO2 accumulation in on-land depressions up to lethal concentration) also cause frequent casualties from asphyxiation; and high CO2 gas concentration dissolved in the Lake Kivu water raises the risk of a limnic eruption.
If these phenomena occur, human lives and valuable assets are under threat. The national and local authorities are highly concerned by the susceptibility of people, infrastructures and buildings to suffer from damages. A key contribution of GeoRisCA is to work together with these institutions on assessing and outlining the vulnerabilities by taking into account exposure to perturbations and adaptive capacity or resilience of the systems.
The output is a comprehensive but simple methodology for reliable geo-risks measurement and mapping. The collected data -quantitative and qualitative, regarding hazards and vulnerability- are standardized, weighted and compiled according to our conceptual model and to the scale in a dynamic GIS, in order to lead to a geo-risks' zonation.

Such an approach combining natural and human sciences has never been performed in that region so far. Our partnerships with the local and regional institutions in charge of risk management and prevention from the three countries have highlighted the need and the will to develop together these decision support tools.

Correlation between land use dynamics and Flood Risk Disaster in Osogbo, South-western Nigeria (80)
Oluwagbenga O.Isaac Orimoogunje and Titus O Oke, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NG

The study identified areas susceptible to flooding in the study area and examined the trend of flood hazard focusing on the elements of risks, and impacts of flooding. This was with a view to providing a framework that will assist in response, rescue and mitigation of flood disaster in the study area. The study integrated fieldwork and satellites imageries from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 1991, Landsat Enhance Mapper (ETM+) 2002 and SPOT 5 2009, digital elevation model (DEM) and rainfall data (1986-2010) coupled with socio-economic survey. Digital image processing was carried out for satellite imageries. Spatial analysis was achieved using the ArcGIS (9.3) software packages. Supervised classification operation was performed to obtain the land use pattern and relief features. ArcGIS software was utilized to produce landuse/ landcover maps of the area. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used for terrain analysis. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics and geospatial techniques. The results showed that there is a correlation between land use dynamics and risk disaster in the study area. The result shows further that areas lying within the 200 meters buffer zone and elevation of 225 to 270 meters in the south-western zone were most vulnerable to flood hazards due to dominance of unplanned human activities. The result identified that 30.62% of the study area was floodable when inundated while 69.38% are non-floodable area. The study concluded that the incidence of flooding over the years in the study area were not necessarily caused by increased rainfall but was due to anthropogenic activities and morphological issues in the study area such as violation of urban land use, unplanned urbanization and poor materials used in building construction which increase risk in flood disaster.

Disaster Risk Reduction Capacity Development in Eastern Africa using Geospatial Technologies (277)
Robert Nilson Wayumba, IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC), KE, Roshni Dave, UNOSAT, KE

This background paper describes a regional capacity development project on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) using Geospatial Technologies in support to the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The project is being carried out by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)'s, Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT), through funding from the Government of Norway. The paper provides details of how the three main objectives of the project, namely: to strengthen technical knowledge and skills on use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies for DRR; to raise awareness on geo-spatial technologies for DRR and how to use the information for coordination, dissemination and decision making; and to improve service delivery and data delivery of IGAD and its partners, are being implemented.

Parallel Session 2.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Data and Decisions

The power of opening data for society and economic development (77)
Martin Salzmann, Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), NL

Spatial data are an important asset in any information society. In recent years spatial data have increasingly become available through new data gathering techniques, crowdsourced related activities (both originating from community and commercial initiatives), creation of NSDI's and efforts of the public sector.
We now are at the point where we consider how to make these data and the derived information available to the benefit of society. With opening up we do not only consider data made available free of charge but making other data available and accessible. This is not a trivial operation, because there are numerous actors in the information society. At one side of the spectrum the advocates of open data urge to make all data available free at the point of use. At the other side of the spectrum parties with vested interest are reluctant to open up their data.
In this presentation we discuss our experiences and views on opening up data. We will illustrate where we see benefits both in the public sector as in society at large. These experiences are partly based on the monitoring of the use of our topographic data. These have been open data since january 2012 and since then we have both monitored the output and, more importantly, the outcome of opening up our data. We have found that assessing the outcome of opening data is not simple. Examples where we see increased use of our data are e.g. at our national statistical agency (Statistics Netherlands) and even in the social security sector. We also discuss our experiences of the take up of our data by the private sector and the public at large. We will share how the public sector has benefited and improved it's efficacy.
At the same society also requires that issues as privacy, intellectual property rights, continuity, and availability data are warranted. Maintaining a data infrastructure also requires a sustainable system for covering costs and maintaining quality.
Overall we have experienced that society expects us to open up our data. This in any case helps parties to focus their efforts on their core business, creates a more effective public sector, but also affects the business operation of all parties in the information society, and in particular the data providers.

Open Spatial Data for Rwanda (252)
Kaspar Kundert, Esri Rwanda Ltd., RW

Every Nation needs robust data for development and growth. Young entrepreneurs need data for innovation and for developing new types of applications.
Inaccessible data or data of poor quality that cannot be turned into information to gain knowledge is a serious challenge and may become a major obstacle for development.
“There is no data” - a statement often heard in Africa - does not bear up to reality. It cannot be stressed enough, how much money, effort and time has already been invested by governments, international organizations, donors, NGOs and the private sector - invested in projects creating data as a collateral of the project goal (e.g. surveyed terrains for the construction of a road) or as its main purpose (e.g. aerial photographs for Land Tenure projects).
The challenge is not that there is no data, but that there is not enough open and easily accessible data.
Establishing a legal framework for data sharing is a first remedy to perceived shortage of data. A data sharing policy must be established by the Government itself.
As much as a data sharing policy is needed, it is not enough by itself. Beyond the scope of original projects, deliberate efforts in compiling, documenting, harmonizing, publishing and maintaining data are needed to make data robust and accessible by anyone at reasonable costs.
Not daring to rely on voluntary efforts by some motivated staff - contributions that may or may not happen - this paper calls for establishing an independent organization with a strong but single mandate: Open data, make it robust and accessible to anyone.
While such an organization may be established within or outside the Government, this paper proposes to establish an Open Data Private-Public-Partnership as follows:
o The Government establishes an open data sharing policy, defines the rules, and oversees the process and all its players.
o The Ministries continue to do their work and projects, which often result in new data being created.
o A private company, mandated by the Government and bound by a performance contract, collects the data from each Ministry, harmonizes it to the extent needed and makes it accessible as open data!

Scaling Up Decision Support For Equitable Development Using GIS: Kenyan Experience (139)
Nashon Adero and Eric Nyadimo, Oakar Services Ltd, KE

Equity in access to basic services such as energy, education, health, transport, among others is a key policy challenge to governments across the world. Grim inequalities in access to such essential social and economic services characterise development patterns in most African countries. This high inequality index (gini coefficient) is already worrying, placing countries like Kenya among the most unequal countries in the world. This outcome challenges the common thinking among policy makers that macro-economic growth indicators such as GDP must constitute the strength with which to outdo competitors in the global development marketplace. Location, being critical to integrated synthesis and visualisation of development indicators across geographic space, is rightly regarded as the quintessential fourth dimension to sustainable development. The traditional three-pillar approach looking only at social, economic and environmental drivers of development is no longer tenable because the spatial spread of development outcomes is key to ensuring equitable access and sustainability. Capital cities in Africa claim the single largest share of the national GDP, for instance; without spatial representation, such results compensate for the poor performance of other areas in the average results presented in national statistics. We intend to demonstrate in this paper how deliberate efforts to integrate GIS technologies into decision-making processes can inform policies for achieving equitable development. The examples are drawn from Kenya, a perfect example of the group of developing nations pursuing transformative development paths through elaborate national development blueprints and constitutional reforms. Kenya recently changed her governance structure from a centralised system to a quasi-federal state with 47 county governments, the key goal being to devolve decision-making power closer to the local populace while unlocking the flow of resources to rural areas - which have been neglected for long by unfavourable political economy. This noble goal requires the support of adequate spatial data for full realisation. The 47 newly established county governments in Kenya face a severe deficiency of spatial data and spatial information management systems. The foundations of Kenya Vision 2030, particularly land reform and infrastructure development, cannot hold without robust spatial enablement. We show that the huge potential for e-commerce, tourism, service availability mapping, transport and logistics, geodemographics among others cannot be fully realised without resolute and coordinated geospatial technology adoption. Using spatially disaggregated data on basic facilities and services, this paper proposes GIS-enabled interventions essential to transforming similar unequal spatial development paradigms into ones that can support local development equitably.

How can better spatial information improve the conservation effectiveness of protected areas, and what role does biodiversity conservation play in supporting poverty reduction? (154)
Stephen Peedell, European Commission Joint Research Centre, IT, Christine Mentzel, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), ZA

Well designed and effectively managed systems of protected areas are a vital tool for biodiversity conservation and for maintaining ecosystem services; in some cases they may also provide opportunities for enhancing the livelihoods of local communities thus having a role to play in reducing poverty. In short, protected areas may deliver environmental goods and services which underpin sustainable development and human well-being. Their role in relation to ecosystem services is essential in the context of recommendations from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment which noted that “the loss of services derived from ecosystems is a significant barrier to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals to reduce poverty, hunger and disease”.

African, Caribbean and Pacific governments have employed a great effort in establishing protected areas (PAs). In Africa, PAs cover slightly over 2 million km2 or 7% of the continent's 30 million km2. In spite of these efforts, the rate of the loss of biodiversity hasn't slowed down. Many of the protected areas systems of ACP countries do not achieved their intended role of conserving key species, ecosystems and services. One of the problems is that the existing human and institutional capacity in ACP countries is limited and suffers from uncoordinated approaches to effectively deal with the issues of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity conservation and climate change.

The Biodiversity and Protected Areas Management (BIOPAMA) programme was launched by the European Commission in July 2011 and it is financially supported with Intra-ACP (Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific countries) resources from the 10th European Development Fund (EDF). This programme has two main components: one on protected areas which will be implemented by IUCN and the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), and another on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS), which will be implemented by the Multi-Donor ABS Capacity Development Initiative managed by the German Development Cooperation (GiZ).will support the creation of “Observatories for Protected Areas and Biodiversity” in each region involved.

The information delivered through these observatories will have a strong spatial emphasis, and the architecture of federated systems and web services will depend very much on the successful implementation of SDI components in the region. We will demonstrate our current state-of-the-art of web based tools for biodiversity modelling and information exchange and discuss how regional information services can contribute to and benefit from the future BIOPAMA Observatories.

Parallel Session 3.1 (Conf Room 1)
Collaborative Approaches: Implementation & Research

GeoSUR, New Tools, New Data and New Approaches to Build a Latin American SDI (65)
Eric van Praag, CAF, VE, Santiago Borrero, PAIGH, MX, Matthew Cushing and Michelle Anthony, USGS, US

The GeoSUR Program´s aim is to make geographic information useful for policy-makers seeking to find practical answers to problems spanning across borders and disciplines. GeoSUR has developed an effective inter-institutional mechanism for generating, disseminating, and exploiting geospatial data that can be implemented for decision-making and policy support purposes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The Program consists of five main components: i) a regional geoportal, ii) a decentralized network of map services, iii) a LAC regional map service, iv) a topographic processing service, and v) regional geoprocessing tools for energy assessment and early warning systems. Today, more than 100 agencies from 25 countries participate in GeoSUR and make their spatial data available through this regional network.

The focus of the presentation will be the efforts undertaken over the past two years in LAC to expedite the building of a regional SDI and the implementation of online decision-support tools that leverage the wealth of data and metadata available in the network.

GeoSUR now supports efforts to harmonize and integrate regional datasets. In collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, the Pan American Institute of Geography and History and the geographic institutes of Mesoamerica, GeoSUR assisted with the development of the first Regional Mesoamerican Map, at a 1:250,000 scale, now available in the GeoSUR Map Viewer. Plans are underway to develop a similar dataset for the Andean countries in the near future.

New GeoSUR undertakings include GIS-based hydropower assessments that allow governments to identify the best locations for building small and medium hydropower plants using the SRTM 30-meter DEM. Studies have been completed for Sao Paulo State (Brazil) and Peru and will be extended to four more countries in 2014. GeoSUR has also incorporated new decision - support tools to analyze new projects, project impact visualization tools, and regional datasets on more than 60 new topics. With support from the University of Colorado, GeoSUR is adapting its near-real-time flood mapping and river watch system for the LAC region.

GeoSUR is one of very few operational regional spatial data networks in the developing world. Built with a modest price tag and having gained some insights on how to implement such a network in developing countries, it offers a model for other regions attempting to build their supra-national SDIs.

Creation of the Geospatial Platform to Further the NSDI (200)
Michelle Anthony, US Geological Survey, US, Douglas Nebert and Ivan DeLoatch, US Federal Geographic Data Committee, US

The Geospatial Platform was launched in the U.S. in October 2012 as the next generation of a national geoportal and its support infrastructure. The capabilities of the Geospatial Platform include support for online collaboration communities for themes and topics, a new unified resource catalog to support discovery and connection to online data, services, and applications, the creation and publication of web map 'mashups,' and support of portfolio management (investment) information for national geospatial data assets. The Platform is fully integrated with the national data.gov effort, sharing its catalog.data.gov index and supporting geospatial visualization and analysis.

Challenges and Pitfalls of Interdisciplinary SDI Research in Practice (47)
Joep Crompvoets, KU Leuven - Public Management Institute, BE

Between 2007 and 2012, a team of researchers of KU Leuven and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium) worked on the project SPATIALIST: Spatial Data Infrastructures and Public Sector Innovation in Flanders. This project aimed to look at SDI-development from an interdisciplinary perspective considering the disciplines of geomatics, law, economics, sociology, and public administration. The main objective of this four-year project was to determine the technological, legal, economic, organisational and public administrative requirements for the further development of the Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in Flanders. This project was funded by the Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders.

In order to guarantee a comprehensive research about the SDI-development in Flanders, input from many disciplines, i.e. interdisciplinary research was needed. However, it appeared to be difficult for various reasons.

One reason was the difficulty to determine what it is that distinguishes one discipline from another. Most important are the concepts (and the associated terminologies) that the discipline uses. To appreciate this point, we could suggest implementing the following experiment. Ask a few leading economists to write down the 10 most important concepts in economics. Then ask a few leading sociologists, lawyers, public administrative scientists, and geo-information scientists to do the same thing. It is very likely that there is almost no overlap in the lists of concepts. The concepts that you think are important do not appear on their lists, and vice-versa. This discordance makes true interdisciplinary research (a blending and fusion of concepts) unlikely.

Another reason referred to the disciplinary questions for seeking to answer. Again, ask representatives from the different disciplines “What are the most important, the most central, and the most enduring questions in your domain?” and wide differences in the answers will be apparent across the disciplines. There may be a little more overlap of questions than concepts, but basically the different disciplines have different interests. One can imagine that disciplines are like maps; different maps answer different questions. Suppose you are planning a trip to Ethiopia. You would almost surely want a map that shows the roads and highways, cities and towns, the locations of airports, and so on. But you might also be interested in hiking, so you would also want another map - a topographical map which shows altitudes, the location of lakes, and rivers. It is also possible that you would want to consult a meteorological map to learn about expected temperatures and precipitation, and one can imagine still other maps (e.g., one showing places of historical and cultural interest). One map is no “better” than another; they simply serve different purposes. The same is true of disciplines. They attempt to answer different questions, all of which may be relevant.

In addition to differences in concepts and questions, the disciplines also differ in their methods. To oversimplify, economists are good at building models, at econometrics, and at teasing inferences from “natural experiments.” Some technologists make use of controlled experiments or built prototypes, while sociologists and public administration scientists have expertise in survey research. Interdisciplinary research thus far has largely taken the form of borrowing methods. One professor in public administration might tell his students, “We have some good questions, but if you want to learn how to answer them, go take the econometrics sequence.” Many sociologists have begun to import econometric methods. Some economists have made considerable investments in survey research and others have been conducting controlled experiments. The exchange of methods is no doubt useful, but so long as the disciplines employ distinct concepts and address different questions, true interdisciplinary research will remain elusive.

At the end, most of the SPATIALIST research was multi-disciplinary in nature. This approach provided also some understanding and contributed to better decisions than would be possible through reliance on a single discipline. The paper overviews the main challenges of the SPATIALIST project from an inter/multidisciplinary perspective as well as the pitfalls that were anticipated along the way. These outcomes might be helpful for future inter/multidisciplinary research in the domain of Spatial Data Infrastructures.

The United Nations Geographic Information Working Group (284)
Lorant Czaran, Luc St-Pierre, United Nations (OOSA), AT, Andre Dehondt, United Nations, US

This presentation will introduce UNGIWG as a UN inter-agency working group agencies, present its major achievements during its 12 years of existence, highlight GIS-related developments in the UN system and efforts to build a UNSDI for improved coordination and efficient use of resources.
A UNGIWG success in establishing a functional SDI within the UN system would implicitly lead to benefits for all UN Member States as well, and contribute to improved data and resource sharing between UN and national or regional relevant organizations.

OSGeo Live: Open Source GIS software for SDIs (168)
Gavin Fleming, OSGeo, ZA

OSGeo-Live is a self-contained bootable DVD, USB thumb drive or Virtual Machine based on Xubuntu, that allows you to try a wide variety of free and open source (FOSS) geospatial software without installing anything. It is composed entirely of free software, allowing it to be freely distributed, duplicated and passed around.
It provides pre-configured applications for a range of geospatial use cases, including storage, publication, viewing, analysis and manipulation of data. It also contains sample datasets and documentation.
To try out the applications, simply:1. Insert DVD or USB thumb drive in computer or virtual machine. 2. Reboot computer. 3. Press “Enter” to startup & login. 4. Select and run applications from the “Geospatial” menu.
Many applications are also provided with installers for Apple OSX and Microsoft Windows.
This presentation will give an overview of the software available on OSGeo Live with an emphasis on SDI development.

Parallel Session 3.2 (Conf Room 3)
World Bank Perspectives

Why the Geography of Aid Matters for Aid Effectiveness (179)
Elizabeth Dodds, Qiyang Xu, Kaushal Jhalla, World Bank, US, Hanif Rahemtulla, World Bank, PH

The geography of aid refers to the location and distribution of foreign assistance across and within developing countries. Although at the sub-national level the geography of aid has previously been neglected by development scholars and policymakers alike, this subject is beginning to gain traction within the global aid transparency movement as a means to enhance aid effectiveness. Specifically, knowledge of the geography of aid is expected to contribute to aid transparency, improve aid allocation and coordination, and encourage citizen engagement in decision-making processes. For these reasons, a number of initiatives have begun to collect, publish and map the sub-national locations of aid activities, leading to a surge in geospatial aid information.

In an effort to heighten the profile and demonstrate the value of geospatial aid information, this paper seeks to articulate the link between the geography of aid and aid effectiveness. Section II provides an overview of the global aid effectiveness and transparency movements to date, framing the emergence of geospatial aid information within this context. Section III explores the theoretical channels through which the geography of aid is expected to enhance development outcomes. Finally, Section IV discusses an early aid mapping initiative in Malawi, drawing upon geo-coded data and interviews conducted with key stakeholders in the country to illuminate potential opportunities and constraints that will undoubtedly shape the impact of in-country aid mapping going forward. Finally, Section V provides recommendations and concludes.

The Open Data 'Bazaar': Crowdsourcing Solutions to Improve Data Accuracy and Re-Use in Kenya (180)
Qiyang Xu, World Bank, US, Hanif Rahemtulla, World Bank, PH, Charles Brigham, World Bank, ID, Samantha Custer, Georgetown University, US, Kaushal Jhalla, World Bank, US

International organizations and governments are launching open data initiatives with impressive speed, making their information publicly available via electronic portals for citizens, companies and civil society to re-use. This necessarily provokes three interrelated questions. To what degree is this open data accurate? What are the implications of data inaccuracy for the efficacy of open data initiatives? Finally, to what extent can initiatives leverage crowdsourcing to improve the validity of open data? This paper contributes unique perspective to this broader discussion, focusing on one of the first developing country open data initiatives in Kenya and the sub-field of open geospatial information, exemplifying granular, local level information of high value to citizens. Organized in four parts, the paper provides: (1) an overview of open data globally and in Kenya specifically; (2) an analysis of the accuracy of geo-location coordinates in two education and health datasets available on Kenya's Open Data portal (opendata.go.ke); (3) a description of the design process of a crowdsourcing tool to draw upon the contribution of citizens to improve open geospatial data; and (4) an elaboration of lessons learned and implications of relevance to future open data and crowdsourcing initiatives.

Open Geographic and Crowd Sourced Data for International Development (182)
Charles Brigham, World Bank, ID, Amor Laaribi, United Nations, US, Bjorn-Soren Gigler, World Bank, US, Hanif Rahemtulla, World Bank, PH

At the high level forum on Global Geospatial Information Management (CGIM) it was determined that accessibility and sharing of geospatial data at minimum cost as one of the key information policy issues and “Open Data” was considered an important considerations needed to be taken seriously, there was broad support that restrictions on the release of geospatial data should be minimal. This was agreed in parallel within the HLF in their recognition of the importance of monitoring the development if crowd sourcing and volunteered geographic information, which could be additional sources of geographical information. There are several examples related to the collaborative opening up geographic information at a globally agreed level signal a burgeoning/flourishing area related to open geospatial information. This paper attempts to identify examples in open data/open geographic information and the simultaneous acknowledgement of the value of non-authoritative data to show the openness within the development community and the move to broaden geographic information programs within development institutions.

Spatially Enabling Development Programs in Kenya - Open Aid Partnership and the Government of Kenya (241)
Johannes Kiess, The World Bank, US, Peter Kamau, Ministry of Finance, Government of Kenya, KE, Peter Ndunda, The World Bank, US

Kenya, with a population of more than 43 million people, has more than 89 development partners. In order to effectively manage the information about the various development programs, the Government of Kenya has developed a centralized database for development projects. This platform - also known as e-ProMIS (Electronic Project Management System) - is a comprehensive Monitoring and Evaluation system for the government to improve efficiency and transparency of government and donor funded development programs and projects.

In 2012, recognizing the need to spatially enable the national Project Management System, the Government of Kenya and the Open Aid Partnership initiated a mapping exercise of all donor financed and implemented projects in Kenya with the aim of scaling up the program to include off-budget and Government financed projects. The program has been engaging with Government ministries, project implementation agencies and the donor community to collect projects' information and geocode project locations. Collected information is then integrated in e-ProMIS (the national Project Management System) and shared with the public through various tools within e-ProMIS, OAP global mapping platform and Kenya Open Data Initiative portal.

The goal of this program is to improve transparency and awareness of ongoing aid activities, coordination of aid among a variety of development partners and programs, and the targeting of aid to the poorest communities. The system will also serve as a platform upon which future activities such as beneficiary feedback and results monitoring can be built.
This paper highlights the program's experiences and lessons learned by the Government of Kenya and the Open Aid Partnership in the development of a spatially enabled national system towards increased aid effectiveness in Kenya.

1. Johannes Kiess - Open Aid Partnership, The World Bank Institute.
2. Peter Kamau - Assistant Director, Ministry of Finance, Government of Kenya.
3. Peter Ndunda - Open Aid Partnership, The World Bank Institute.
About Open Aid Partnership (OAP):
The Open Aid Partnership (OAP) was launched in 2011 by the World Bank Institute to bring together development partners from developing countries and donor countries to increase the transparency of development aid and how it is reported. So far, the OAP has been endorsed by Sweden, Spain, Estonia, Canada, the World Bank, ONE, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Finland, the Czech Republic, InterAction and the African Development Bank.

Parallel Session 3.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)
Economic Development & Poverty

Unpacking the Nexus among Food Prices, Agricultural Productivity and Poverty in Nigeria: The Geographic Information Systems Approach (4)
Olawale Emmanuel Olayide, Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, Tunrayo Alabi, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

Rising food prices and low agricultural productivity are major threats to feeding the teeming population of the most populous nation in Africa, especially Nigeria. Poverty incidence in Nigeria is a major obstacle to agricultural and economic development. Besides, low agricultural productivity (output per hectare or yield) for cereals has often been implicated for double tragedy of high food prices and increase in poverty levels, especially for net buyers or importing countries. Hence, the need to analyze the nexus among food prices, agricultural productivity and poverty levels in order to underscore the need for promoting sustainable development in Nigeria.

An assessment of the connections among food prices, agricultural productivity and poverty levels would help to inform appropriate policy for exiting poverty trap, and promoting sustainable agricultural and economic development in Nigeria. Agricultural and economic resources (food prices, productivity and poverty) mapping enhances appropriate and location-specific policy targeting and development planning for sustainable development.

This study provides an assessment and mapping of major cereal (maize) prices, agricultural productivity (yield) and poverty levels, as drivers of sustainable development. Overall, two patterns of change for each of the variables - food price, productivity and poverty levels - were identified and analyzed. These patterns are high or moderate price change, productivity increase or decrease, and increase or decrease in poverty levels. The overlay and mapping of the three variables of price of maize, productivity (yield of maize), and poverty changes by development domains in Nigeria were undertaken. This study used periodic and spatial data on maize prices, maize yields and poverty levels.

Based on the objectives of Nigeria's agricultural and economic development policy outcomes of moderate price change, increased agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, the study revealed that only three States (Kaduna, Rivers, and Akwa Ibom) out of 37 development domains (that is, eight percent) satisfied these sustainable development outcomes.

The study revealed the nexus in food price, productivity and poverty by development domains in Nigeria. It submitted that there was low level of effectiveness in agricultural and economic development outcomes. It therefore, recommends that policies on food price stabilization, agricultural productivity increases and poverty reduction be pursued simultaneously for effective transition from low development outcomes to sustainable agricultural and economic development outcomes in Nigeria.

Rwanda's e-Soko: Accessing information technologies in Rwanda for economic development and poverty reduction (30)
Dave TiOluwa Akinyemi, Green Hills Academy, RW

With over 75% of Rwanda's population making a living through agriculture and subsistence farming, the government is promoting access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) including Geographic Information technologies (Geo-ICT) in the agricultural sector to achieve economic development and reduce poverty. As the government is investing in numerous initiatives with the potential of boosting the ICT level and skill of its citizens, applications in the agribusiness sector are beginning to emerge. Some examples are the Agribusiness use of GIS for the determination of
Rwanda coffee appellation regions. The e-Soko initiative which is a service that primarily focuses on keeping farmers and traders informed about the prices of agricultural produce through the use of mobile phones and internet. This is to enable them make better market pricing decisions which would result in successful trade. Lack of access to agricultural pricing information is identified as a major setback for farmers and/or agricultural traders because most times farmers rely on middlemen to dictate the prices of goods and this usually results in the latter exploiting the farmer. This paper is an investigation of the extent to which the Rwanda e-Soko initiative has improved the agro-marketing sector of Rwanda. Questionnaires were administered to e-Soko users in three main markets, namely: Kimironko, Nyabugogo and Kicukiro in Kigali (the capital city) and officials were also interviewed. The results captured the level of awareness of e-Soko use among farmers and agricultural traders. Overall, agricultural traders using the e-Soko service claimed that it improved their trade. The evaluation of the data also confirmed that indeed the income of those who used e-Soko improved.

Spatial Poverty Analysis in Rural Amhara Region: Application of Small Area Estimation and GIS Methods (254)
Demissie Kebede, Addis Ababa University, ET

Poverty has a spatial dimension. Geography, particularly the physical environment, plays a significant role in the poverty condition of communities and of the people living in disadvantaged regions. The spatial handling of poverty is an emerging paradigm for which researches on the spatial modeling and mapping of poverty are required. However, the spatial dimension of poverty has not been given much attention in many poverty studies, especially in Ethiopia. In an attempt to underscore its importance, this study produced poverty indices using Small Area Estimation approach and poverty map using GIS for all woredas in Amhara region. The Small Area Estimation of Poverty in rural Amhara was prepared with an objective to provide a more disaggregated picture of poverty in the region down to Woreda level, based on detailed data from the 2004/5 household survey with the 2007 population census. Then the study explores the spatial patterns and the possible underlying determinants affecting poverty condition in rural woredas of ANRS. Agro-climatic and physical condition such as elevation, slope, soil, rainfall and access to river, as well as access to road infrastructure and proximity to major markets were all derived using GIS analysis. Each of these variables was correlated with poverty indices using bivariate correlation analysis. Finally all of these variables were combined using multivariate regression analysis to investigate their impact on poverty. Results of the study disclose that the spatial patterns of poverty in terms of incidence exhibit spatially heterogeneous characteristics. The spatial variation in the incidence of poverty is mainly caused by inequalities on access to road infrastructure, proximity to major markets and agro-climatic factors, particularly, rainfall, soil, and slope proved to be significant determinants to poverty in the study area. This suggests that geographically disadvantageous areas within the study area existed. Thus, geography, accessibility to road infrastructure, and markets has a strong impact on the condition of poverty of people in the region.

Spatial Approach to (Zonal Differentiation) of Livelihood Change and Resource Use in Agro-silvo-fishery Settlements around Lake Victoria, Western Kenya (211)
Matheaus Kauti, South Eastern Kenya University, KE, Gen Ueda, Tohoku University, JP

This study takes a spatial approach aimed at illuminating the extent of environmental change driven by livelihood diversification and resource use, and identifying factors that influence livelihood security of households in agro-silvo-fishery settlements around Lake Victoria, Western Kenya, in the context of a new resource co-management regime introduced in the 2000s that may impact on resource access and livelihood strategies of the people. The following is a discussion based on a preliminary field research in Sindo and its environs, the former Suba District, Nyanza Province. A spatial approach is adopted as a methodological exemplifier first to obtain a sample of households from different zones and secondly to examine spatial enablement and/or constraint of how resource access and use is by households located in different zones of the natural resource system. Contrary to some expectations set by the existing literature, farming households located in the interior zones were increasingly separated from fishing, possibly due to overfishing and the general shift from inshore to offshore fisheries, and to the increasing fishing cost: only those with sufficient capital can go offshore to fish. The livelihood options for the people may become less than before, with the consequence of their increasing vulnerability to various economic shocks. In contrast to the case of fishing, resources in the forest reserve adjacent to their settlements were widely used for firewood and fodder regardless of the zones from the lake shore. This was with no communal nor co- management except occasional community policing, facing environmental degradation. Natural resource use and livelihood diversification/security in the research area are also to be examined taking into account the co-management system since, once operational on a greater scale, it may restrict the resource access of the interior people when the aquatic resources are restored and firewood are used again for local processing of fish. On the basis of these findings, the study argues for place-based analysis at both household-level and local-levels in enhancing understanding of local-level decisions in adoption of different livelihood strategies and management of natural resources in the face of changing economic and environmental conditions.

Parallel Session 3.4 (Caucus Room 11)
Driving the Spatial Revolution

See the workshop description.

Parallel Session 3.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Vulnerabilities and Assessment

GIS-based land suitability assessment for optimum allocation of land to foster Sustainable Development: the Case of the special zone of Oromia Regional State around Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia (66)
Dessalegn Gurmessa, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), Addis Ababa, ET, Sileshi Nemomissa, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, ET

Land use allocation involves the process of designing an optimal mix of land uses based on their estimated suitability. Whereas land use suitability is a generic term associating a combination of factors and their impacts with respect to potential land use.The study area surrounds the city of Addis Ababa and endowed with suitable environmental variables that enhanced demand for a piece of land. The apparent rapid urbanization is straining various land uses such as crop and livestock production, forestry, wildlife conservation etc. Focused researches on suitability based land use allocation are, therefore, vital to disentangle and understand the intricacies of land management in the study area. To assist the efficient utilization of land resources to promote sustainability of natural resource bases, the study made use of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing models to integrate spatially complex and different land attributes for performing land suitability analyses and allocations. The current study showed that, 59.2% and 8.6%, of the total study area is allocated for livestock-crop specialization and crop-livestock specialization, respectively. It should be noted that, for sustainability of land productivity, integration of pastures in to crop farming system is inevitable measure. Hence, in the crop-livestock specialization zone, the study proposed crops as main production and livestock as supplementary production. Finally the study serves as a stepping stone for understanding the potentials and limitations of the land in the study area.

Modeling the Predictability of Agricultural Drought Using Low Cost Satellite Images (68)
Getachew Berhan Demisse, Addis Ababa University, ET

The objective of this article was to develop a new concept for integrating different climate, biophysical and satellite attributes for predicting drought in space-time dimensions using low cost satellite data. An exploratory research method was used for data integration and pattern extraction of the target attribute drought. In this experimental analysis, the correlations of the selected independent attributes with the target dependent attribute standardized deviation of normalized differential vegetation index (SDNDVI) were explored. The R2 values ranged from 0.07-0.87 on ordinary least square (OLS) and 0.44-0.95 on geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis. The output of this new concept can be developed to a full system and is helpful for extracting the freely available satellite images for drought monitoring and climate change mitigation applications at different levels of decision making.

Agricultural Drought Severity Assessment using NDVI and LST (55)
John Kapoi Kipterer, RCMRD, KE, Wumi Alabi, ARCSSTEE, NG

This study was focused on Nakuru, a tropical region in the Rift Valley of Kenya, bounded between latitude 0.28°N and 1.16°S, and longitude 36.27° E and 36.55°E. The man The main aim of this research is to assess the agricultural drought in the high potential region of Kenya with an objective of mapping the agricultural drought severity levels, assessing the precipitation and normalized difference vegetation index deviation over its long term mean average in the region and to generate land surface temperature and emissivity maps to compare the surface temperature proportion during the drought and normal period.
The data were obtained from NOAA-AVHRR, LANDSAT TM and ETM+ and was processed with ERDAS Imagine and GIS software of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The land surface temperature was derived using Planck's radioactive principles. The thermal band of Landsat TM was utilized to extract the radiance and brightness temperature. The brightness temperature was combined with surface emissivity to derive the land surface temperature (LST) while NDVI was derived from bands 3 and 4 and its result was divided by the LST to determine the moisture levels. The products were classified into five main classes to reflect the moisture levels. Rainfall and NDVI performance were also processed from NOAA AVHRR and long term mean established and compared with the specific year of student performance.
The result of the study revealed that NOAA-AVHRR data offers very useful information in drought monitoring and early warning, LST and NDVI are useful in moisture level mapping that can be used to detect drought and the drought in Nakuru is characterized by both low and high temperatures that exacerbates the crop failure.

GIS As A Vital Tool In Emergency Responses To Crime Incidences In Oyo Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria (207)
Kayode Odedare, Adedayo Alagbe, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, NG

Lack of comprehensive emergency management plan in Nigerian cities is the major cause of death and loss of properties in many instances when disaster occurs. For law enforcement agencies to be as effective as possible both in planning and operational support when responding to crime incidents in Oyo metropolis, they have to rely on accurate and timely information about the location of crime incidents. The ability to access and process spatial information quickly, from multiple sources, and to give visual feedback, is crucial to planning and operational effectiveness. One of the most efficient and helpful ways of doing this is by using Geographic Information System (GIS). This paper therefore exploits the concepts of GIS functionalities to create digital spatial database of road network for responses to crime incidences. Spatial database was designed for various entities identified in the study area. Geometric data was acquired from satellite imagery through digitizing and the imagery updated through hand-held GPS receiver while attribute data was acquired through social survey. Street addresses were also acquired and included in the database to determine location of crime incident areas. Spatial database and a digital road network were created for the entities and analysis was carried out in ArcGIS 10. ArcGIS 10 provides greater support in giving information about the vicinity of an emergency and solving direction finding problems. Various spatial operations such as spatial queries, best route analysis, closest facility analysis and service area analysis were performed. The study was concluded by recommending various ways to solving direction finding problems during an emergency by law enforcement agencies within the study area.

Application of multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS techniques in vulnerability assessment of coastal inhabitants in Nigeria to crude oil production and transportation activities (242)
Omoleomo Omo-Irabor, Fed. Univ. of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, NG, Bamidele Olobaniyi, University of Lagos, Lagos, NG

A framework integrating environmental, social and economic criteria for vulnerability assessment of coastal inhabitants is necessary to reliably assess the impact of industrial activities in such areas without bias. This paper reports a procedure involving the integration of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), remote sensing data and GIS techniques to evaluate the impact of crude oil production and transportation activities in the western Niger Delta region. First, potentially vulnerable areas were established using factors based on the threat, exposure and sensitivity of the environment to crude oil activities. Adaptive capacity criteria were applied to gauge the socio-economic ability of inhabitants of host communities to cope with problems arising from exploitation, exploration and transportation of crude oil and its related products. Various stakeholders interest (operators, regulators, community members and other major stakeholders) were directly incorporated into the approach to improve decision-making processes. Scores based on the adaptive capacity (AC) show that host communities have poor to moderate socio-economic development and the component weights indicate that economic wealth (AC1) and access to information/services (AC3) represent the most and least important factors respectively. The threat factor was adjudged the most important of the potential impact assessment (PIA) criteria. This is due to the age of the facilities used in oil exploration and production activities in the area and the frequency of vandalization of such facilities. The integration of the two main factors AC and PIA show that 70% of the local government areas (LGA) investigated require greater capacity building for the inhabitants to be equipped in dealing with threats posed by oil pollution. The result also shows that 20% of the LGAs require rehabilitation. This implies that the producing companies need to embark of environmental degradation reversal strategies and urgently address the issue of facilities maintenance and the socio-economic wellbeing of the affected communities.

Parallel Session 4.1 (Conf Room 1)
Enabling Citizens

Citizen observatories of water: Moving from data scarcity to increased participation in water governance (132)
Uta Wehn de Montalvo, Jaap Evers, Maria Rusca, Abby Onencan, UNESCO-IHE, NL

We live in the age of Big Data, yet many areas of environmental management are still suffering from a lack of relevant data and information that impedes sound decision making, even when they are supported by dedicated spatial data infrastructures among relevant agencies. A highly relevant phenomenon is therefore the so-called citizen observatory which means that the observations of ordinary citizens, and not just those of scientists, can be included in earth observation and environmental conservation. The citizen observatories of water being developed by the WeSenseIt project go beyond 'mere' sensing in order to harness environmental data and knowledge to effectively and efficiently manage water resources. The key aspect of these observatories is the direct involvement of user communities in the data collection process: it enables citizen involvement by collecting data via an innovative combination of easy-to-use sensors and monitoring technologies as well as harnessing citizens' collective intelligence, i.e. the information, experience and knowledge embodied within individuals and communities. In sum, these features can enable a two-way communications paradigm between citizens and decision makers, potentially resulting in profound changes to existing water governance processes. The citizen observatories of water will be tested and validated in three case studies in collaboration with water management and civil protection agencies in the UK, the Netherlands and Italy. These case studies cover the entire hydrological cycle with a major focus on variables responsible for flood occurrences. The developed platform will be in synergy with global data sharing initiatives complementary to the actions conducted under the GMES initiative; all data and selected components will be made available within the GEOSS framework. Given a focus of the WeSenseIt citizen observatories on flood risk management, this paper analyses the specific governance contexts within which the three respective citizen water observatories will be embedded during the life time of the project. Empirical and desk research in the three case study areas was undertaken, covering local water authorities, environmental protection agencies, emergency services and local stakeholders. Their roles and their interactions with citizens during different phases of the disaster cycle (preparation, response, recovery, mitigation/prevention) were mapped to understand how stakeholders interact in the decision making processes related to flood risk management. This provides a basis to examine the need and the potential of the WeSenseIt citizen observatories to increase citizen participation in local water governance, i.e. changes in the degree of citizen influence in the decision making processes that determine flood risk management in their local community. Particular attention is paid to the WeSenseIt-enabled roles (e.g. voluntary data collection and/or indirect data provision by citizens), functionalities (e.g. online feedback mechanisms) and interaction opportunities (e.g. knowledge exchanges between decision makers and citizens). We consider how these features of the citizen observatory may lead to changes in citizen participation in these water governance processes and, in turn, the extent to which this may lead to improved water governance outcomes.
This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 308429. www.wesenseit.eu

Resource-Constrained Agriculture in Developing Countries and Where Geo-ICT Can Help (172)
Clarisse Kagoyire and Rolf A. de By, University of Twente, NL

In many African countries, agriculture is constrained by resource scarcity such as in soil nutrients, seeds or plantlets, pesticides, fertilisers, water, weather conditions, labour, transport logistics, arable land, or access to credit. Each agricultural production stage connects with a set of prominent resource constraints, which are commonly location-specific, varying from one farm to another. In this paper, we discuss the resource constraints encountered with on-farm agricultural activities, from the choice of seeds to the time of harvest. Our aim is to identify which geospatial information must be put in action to improve farm production, in quantity or quality. To determine the predominant resources that limit a particular farm income, we propose a framework for constraint-based farm-plot profiles, in the context of limited access to ICT services. Exemplified by a case study of coffee farming in Rwanda, we specify a number of agricultural resources that potentially constrain coffee production. Besides traditional sources of agricultural information, our framework taps into another source that is often ignored: the farmers themselves.

Spatial data sharing in Rwanda: the need for a national policy (146)
Ernest Uwayezu, National University of Rwanda, RW

Public and private organizations in Rwanda use spatial data in natural resources management and protection, biodiversity conservations, urban and regional planning, infrastructures planning and design, marketing, land registration, etc. Data are independently collected and managed in each organization depending on its need and available resources. This results in duplication of effort and inefficient use of financial resources in spatial data acquisition. From the context of geo-information theory, spatial data sharing is perceived as the appropriate mechanism for an optimal use of spatial data to solve the problems of data duplication and minimizing the cost of data collection. Two approaches on spatial data sharing among producers and users have been identified specifically access for free and access for fees. The study assesses the willingness of both public and private organizations, operating at national, regional and local levels in Rwanda, to cooperate towards spatial data sharing and efficiently use of resources allocated to spatial data generation. The survey was conducted within 39 organizations. Purposive sampling method was deployed to determine the number of organizations to survey. The key areas covered in data collection included organizational policy and approaches which are adopted in spatial data provision. The research uses interpretative techniques to analyze data obtained from survey by questionnaire and interviews with stakeholders participating in spatial data collection, management and dissemination within their respective organizations. Findings show that there is no national policy guiding the cooperation of government and private organizations in sharing spatial data albeit those organizations have individually initiated the cooperation to share those data. Both government and private organizations are willing to share spatial data with any users. In practice, spatial data sharing is still informal. Data are shared on demand and accessed through physical contact in the offices. Access to spatial data, free of charge, is the approach adopted by most of the organizations to foster an optimal use of available data. From the perspective of spatial data producers and users, private organizations using spatial data for income generation should pay access fees fo spatial data collected at high cost. Furthermore, it is imperative to select a national coordinating organ mandated to formalize and enhance spatial data sharing cooperation to overcome the burden of data provision within organizations where access is still a bulk. The study recommends the promulgation of a national policy on access to and redistribution of spatial data, and highlights the role of the government in developing Spatial Data Infrastructure to solve the problems related to spatial data availability, duplication in data collection, and diverse standards.

Developing Spatial Information Sharing Strategies Across Natural Resource Management Communities (272)
Dev Raj Paudyal, Kevin McDougall and Armando Apan, University of Southern Queensland, AU

Spatial information plays an important role in many social, environmental, economic and political decisions and is increasingly acknowledged as a national resource essential for wider societal benefits. Natural Resource Management (NRM) is one area where spatial information can be used for improved planning and decision-making process. Traditionally, national mapping agencies and government organisations have been the custodians of spatial information necessary for natural resource management. Recent developments in spatial and information communication technology have provided a new opportunity for NRM community to collect and manage spatial information. With this new environment, the access and sharing of spatial information between NRM communities and government agencies is emerging as an important issue for improved planning and decision making process in NRM sector. The aim of this paper is to identify the key factors which influence spatial information sharing between state government organisations and regional NRM bodies/catchment management authorities in Australia and formulate strategies to facilitate spatial information sharing and hence support spatial enablement initiatives. A mixed method research approach was utilised to collect both quantitative and qualitative data from regional NRM bodies. The questionnaire survey conducted across 56 regional NRM bodies provided current status of spatial information access and sharing for natural resource management and explores the SDI development activities in the NRM sector in Australia. The case study explores the effectiveness of spatial information and knowledge sharing arrangements between regional NRM bodies and state government organisations. Using the mixed method design framework, the key factors which influence spatial information sharing between state government organisations and regional NRM bodies/catchment management authorities were identified and classified into six major classes as organisational, economic, policy, legal, cultural and technical. The strategies were developed and this study suggest that the adoption and implementation of strategies can facilitate spatial information sharing and hence advancing spatially enabled communities across the NRM sector.

Modern Cartography's contribution to spatially-enabled societies (9)
Georg Gartner, Vienna University of Technology, AT

Cartography is seen by many as facing a change of paradigms currently, triggered by technological challenges. As a result of innovative available technologies it becomes considerable, that cartographic communication processes can be realized which deliver user-tailored information to a specific user everywhere (“ubiquitous”) and anytime. The part of scientific cartography analyzing such conceptions is called “ubiquitous cartography”.

This paper reviews a selected set of related research issues in the context of location based services (LBS) and "neocartography" concepts, when consumers become producers as well. By discussing various results of projects in the domain of LBS and Neocartography at Vienna University of Technology the importance of modern cartography for enabling spatial aware societies is discussed.

Parallel Session 4.2 (Conf Room 3)
Industry Showcase

Each exhibitor has the opportunity to give a five-minute presentation on their organization, products and services. Come to learn a lot in a short period of time. The recorded videos will be linked in the web archives for the conference.

Parallel Session 4.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)

Visualizing large spatial and temporal data sets for agricultural monitoring (151)
Hendrik Boogaard, Hugo Groot, Daniel Van Kraalingen and Inge Lariviere, Alterra Wageningen UR, NL

This paper shows an example how large spatial and temporal data sets can be visualized to support the analysis of the on-going cropping season. The example is taken from the European MARS project that provides scientific and technical support to EU Agriculture and Food Security policies. One core activity is centred on provision of timely information on weather and crop conditions in food insecure areas for instance the Horn of Africa. Underlying data sets include model and satellite based weather indicators, simulated crop specific drought indicators and satellite based vegetation indices. Currently, the total size of the datasets equals about 10 Terabytes. To analyse and disseminate all collected and processed spatial data an information infrastructure was designed and built. It includes a relational database on top of which an advanced web-based interface (MARS viewer) has been constructed to visualise and analyse data in a spatial and temporal manner. This way the MARS viewer provides instant access to weather and crop conditions throughout the world. Users can conduct custom searches and view results in a range of intuitive and easy to apply configurations.
The MARS viewer is based on a client-server architecture and is developed in the Rich Internet Application environment Adobe Flex. Development of complex web enabled user interfaces in an asynchronous, event driven environment like Adobe Flex can potentially lead to complex and even unmanageable event structures. Through the use of an application framework based on the Model View Control pattern, the handling of events and requests is structured in such a way that manageability and maintainability is guaranteed. The generation of maps is supported by the use of the OS map server GeoServer allowing seamless integration of raster images and feature based data (e.g. polygons). Because of the large data sets specific measures have been taken in the area of data handling and processing including dedicated cache mechanisms to secure timely provision of the data to the end users.

Improving Crop Area Estimation in West Africa Using Multi-resolution Satellite Data (97)
Gerald Forkuor, Julian Zeidler, Michael Thiel and Christopher Conrad, University of Wuerzburg, DE

High population growth rates in West Africa in recent years have increased food demand in the sub-region. In response, agricultural extensification (cropland expansion) has taken place, mostly at the expense of forest and other vegetation cover (Ruelland et al., 2010). In order to monitor this expansion, accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution and extent of cropland (agricultural statistics) is required. Such information can assist in the planning and implementation of agricultural development programs, assess the impact of agricultural activities on the environment (e.g. climate, degradation and desertification) (Lobell et al., 2006), and assist in the management of land resources.

Information on the spatial distribution and extent of cropland in West Africa is poor (Ramakutty, 2004). Traditionally, agricultural surveys conducted at national and sub-national scales have been relied upon for various analyses. But the administrative units (e.g. regional or district boundaries) on which these surveys are conducted are often too coarse to reveal the spatial patterns of cropland. Moderate resolution satellite derived land use/land cover (LULC) datasets (e.g. GLCF, GLC2000, etc.) have been an alternative in recent years. But these products have been found to be inconsistent, especially in providing information on cropland extent and distribution (Hannerz and Lotsch, 2008; Fritz et al., 2010; Vintrou et al., 2012). These inconsistencies have been blamed on the spatial resolution of the data used, as well as the varying classification nomenclature adopted (Bicheron et al., 2008; Fritz et al., 2011). At the same time, these moderate resolution datasets are best suited for national/regional analysis owing to their spatial coverage and high temporal resolution.

In order to improve knowledge of the extent and spatial distribution of cropland at national/regional scales, this study proposes a fractional cover approach, where sub-pixel fraction of cropland is determined based on analysis of multi-resolution satellite data (RapidEye, Landsat, MODIS). The study focuses on the Sudanian Savanna region of West Africa.

Fractional cover approaches have successfully been tested for other land cover types in Africa (e.g. Zeidler et al. 2012; Gessner et al. 2013). In this study, detailed information on cropland extent and distribution obtained from high resolution RapidEye (RE) data is upscaled to MODIS resolution using Landsat as an intermediate layer. The final output is a fractional crop cover per MODIS pixel. The methodology entails three steps:
1. Derivation of detailed information on cropland by classifying multi-temporal high resolution RE data acquired during the cropping season.
2. Aggregation of RE classification to Landsat resolution and determining the fractional crop cover (at Landsat resolution) through Random Forest regression trees (Breiman, 2001) by using the aggregated RE data as training and validation.
3. Aggregation of Landsat fractional crop cover to MODIS resolution and determining the fractional crop cover (at MODIS resolution) through random forest regression trees by using the aggregated Landsat data as training and validation.

Results obtained compared favorably against an independent RE classification as well as crop statistics for sixteen districts in Ghana obtained from the country's Ministry of Food and Agricultural Organization (MoFA).

Remote sensing and GIS techniques for supporting organic cotton certification process in West Africa (136)
Antoine Denis and Bernard Tychon, University of Liège, BE

In Burkina Faso, cotton accounts for 50 to 60% of the country's foreign currency earnings and is the first export product contributing largely to the country's economic development. Successful development of organic and fair-trade cotton since 2004 is a bright example of sustainable development that contributes to alleviation of poverty and improved food security by enhancing producers' income with less risk to run into debt, as well as by being a healthy way to crop both for people and the environment resulting in improved human and animal health (absence of chemical pesticides), and improved soil fertility and environment (organic cropping technique).

In order to be commercialized on the international market, organic cotton has to comply with established international standards and rules and to be certified by organic certification bodies. Part of this certification process is a field inspection concentrating on risk sensitive areas identified according to several criteria. This study is a first attempt in the African context to evaluate how remote sensing techniques could step in upstream of the certification process in order to spatially support the identification of suspicious cotton parcels declared as organic, for priority control. Using remote sensing provides an independent, practical and cost-effective way of control for remote areas sometimes difficult to access in the context of the developing countries rural areas. A previous innovative study (Denis A. et al, 2011), carried out in Europe on wheat and corn, enabled to discriminate up to 100 % of organic fields from non organic ones.

Technically, the objectives of this study are first to assess the potential bio-chemico-physical differences between organic and non organic cotton with diverse field measurements such as chlorophyll content, canopy cover, height and spatial heterogeneity, and secondly, to assess the ability of remote sensing techniques to assist the organic cotton certification process by testing its ability to discriminate between organic and non organic cotton fields.

The hypothesis was made that the different cotton management types, and in particular the different ways of fertilization and pest control, would lead to measurable bio-chemico-physico differences visible from remote sensing observations.

The study site is localized in the south-west of Burkina Faso and includes 100 cotton fields among which 50 organics and 50 non-organics. A SPOT5 image was acquired for the remote sensing indicators computation, but unfortunately very late in the cotton cropping season due to very cloudy atmospheric conditions.

The results show that, in the limited context of this study (area and tools), significant bio-chemico-physical differences exist between organic and non-organic cotton, and this for both field and satellite indicators. However the observed differences during this first attempt are not very pronounced and the different indicators values ranges largely overlap between cotton management types which prevent the use of these indicators alone to be a base for a robust discrimination. However the very late satellite image acquisition prevents to make any straight conclusion regarding the potential efficiency of this technique and further study with timely satellite acquisition should be carried out.

Fertilizer profitability in Uganda: A Spatially analysis of maize fertilizer application (245)
Zhe Guo, Liangzhi You and Jawoo Koo, International Food Policy Research Institute, US

Even though it is clear that Substantial growth in inorganic fertilizer use is a prerequisite for sustained agricultural growth in Africa, fertilizer use is still one of the factors explaining lagging agricultural productivity growth in SSA. High transport costs and less policy support pose a significant barrier to make fertilizer application profitable in Africa. This paper is aimed to identify organizational and institutional changes that could reduce fertilizer transport costs and their impacts on profitability of fertilizer application. A model is constructed to simulated transport costs from ports to farm-gate at pixel level based on the knowledge of road network condition, surface land cover type, slope, imported fertilizer price at the port, storing fee, handling fee and regulation fee. Furthermore, farm-gate fertilizer price, maize price and VCR (value cost ratio) are calculated. To test the impacts of different policies and strategies to fertilizer profitability, several scenario simulations are developed to visualize them. There are five scenarios considered in the paper including: a) Baseline scenario b) Reduce fertilizer price at port by 20 and 50% c) Transport cost reduce by 20% and 50% d) Reduce country crossing cost by 20% and 50% e) combination of b, c, and d. The research indicated that fertilizer price varies from space. Impacts of scenarios and their severity vary spatially also. There are opportunities to reduce domestic farm-gate fertilizer price if appropriate policy and strategies are made to lower fertilizer transport costs such as improving road condition, decrease handling fee and applying supporting policies and strategies are decreased. Price reduction would increase farmer's effective demand for fertilizer and make fertilizer application profitable. With high incentives of fertilizer consumption, local farmers could increase agriculture production in the end.

Parallel Session 4.4 (Caucus Room 11)
A Platform for Your Nation: ArcGIS Online

See the workshop description.

Parallel Session 4.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Tracking Physical Change

Assessing Forest Coverage Change in a Priority West African Mangrove Ecosystem: 1986-2010 (16)
Judith Carney, University of California Los Angeles Dept. of Geography, US, Richard Rosomoff, Center for Tropical Research UCLA, US, Tom Gillespie, University of California Los Angeles Dept. of Geography, US

This study assesses the areal extent and status of mangrove forests in a West African region prioritized in contemporary conservation, climate change, and livelihood initiatives. The focus is the mangrove-covered landmass between the Gambia and Casamance Rivers that stretches across the international boundary separating Senegal's Casamance province from The Gambia. Remote-sensing images of the region from 1986 and 2010 indicate an overall decline in mangrove coverage but also areas of notable expansion. Fieldwork, carried out by the lead author at various times during the same interval as satellite observations, contextualizes the uneven pattern of mangrove loss and increase. The study illustrates the ways that in situ research can contribute to remote sensing studies and appropriate policy interventions for mangrove forest conservation. It additionally suggests promising directions for collaboration among geographers trained in human, bio-physical, and remote-sensing traditions.

Borana Rangeland change from 1986-2003: the application of Remote Sensing and GIS (108)
Dessalegn Gurmessa, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs(UNOCHA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Sileshi Nemomissa, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Girma Tadesse, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Change detection is the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times. Essentially, it involves the ability to quantify temporal effects using multitemporal datasets. The current study aimed at identifying land cover change in Yabello District for the last 23 years and to what extent and direction the change occur. The study made use of Landsat 1986 and 2003 Remote Sensing Satellite Image analysis to determine the extent and pattern of rangeland change. A post-classification comparison change detection technique revealed different trends in land use/land cover changes over the period from 1986-2003. Accordingly, the major land use/ land cover changes were dominated by changes from grassland to bushland and woodland to bushland. On quantitative terms, 1154.6Km2 of grassland and 651.0Km2 of woodland were converted to bushland. This substantial encroachment of bush is mainly attributed to the ban fire, which was a traditional rangeland management system. The present study used a total of 1098 randomly selected pixels for the 2003 land use/land cover map, which were checked with reference data in the field to assess the accuracy of the classification. Thus, it revealed an overall accuracy of 80.8% and a Kappa index of agreement of 0.7707. Individual class accuracies ranged from 63.30% to 93.57% for producer's accuracy and 70.44% to 98.85% for user's accuracy. However, user's accuracy for woodland showed a value less than 75%. Furthermore, the rates of land use/land cover changes varied between 1986 and 2003, with grassland, woodland and bareland areas exhibiting a decrease, while all other land use/land cover classes increased. Major land use/ land cover changes within the study area were the result of the dynamic nature of bush encroachment, which is critically expanding and an issue of concern for the local communities.

Geospatial application in mapping gully development for effective remediation and control (269)
Charles Udosen, University of Uyo, NG, Roberto Olabanjo, Nigerpet Structures Limited, Uyo, NG, Abasi-ifreke Etok, Akwa Ibom State College of Arts and Sciences, NG

In south-eastern Nigeria, gully erosion has assumed an alarming proportion and this prompted the use of geospatial information technology to map a gully erosion site in Oron, Akwa Ibom State for effective remediation and control.,. Ground controls were provided in the vicinity of the gully head through the use of dual frequency Leica GPS 1200. The obtained data were downloaded and processed using Leica Geo Office 8.3 and the processed data exported to Arc GIS 10.1 and Auto CAD Civil 3D 2013 for terrain analysis-DEM , Also, the Leica Total Station TS 06 was employed to carry out topographic mapping. The delineated runoff contributing area aided in the computation of maximum discharge (using the Rational method). The computed runoff of 33.919m3/s accounts for the rapid rate gully headscarp retreat at the rate of 1.2m/day during the month of July, prior to intervention by the state government. The results obtained were employed in designing gully control structures

Localizing the Universal Soil loss equation (278)
Ahmed Amdihun and Ephrem Gebremariam, Addis Ababa University, ET, Lisamaria Rebelo, IWMI, LA, Gete Zeleke, Land and Water Resource Center, ET

Soil erosion is one of the prime problems that hampers agricultural productivity, threatens food security and exacerbates rural to urban migration in Ethiopia. One of the objectives of this work is to model soil erosion potential in the Abbay Basin using modified methods than the direct application of the 'universal' methods. It is also intended to characterize all areas of the basin across soil erosion grades; from extreme to very low. Two approaches are devised to modify the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) methods to the Ethiopian conditions. These are the empirical and the out-scaling approaches. The empirical approach is based on earlier works made to modify USLE to Ethiopian highlands. In contrast, the out-scaling approach uses the measured soil erosion values from Soil conservation Research Project stations (SCRP) to the Abbay Basin through homogeneity analysis. The results indicate that the north eastern and south eastern parts of the Basin are areas of extreme soil erosion. The lowland plains of the western and north western areas of the Basin are identified as having very low levels of soil erosion. The results of the empirical model put the potential soil erosion in the Abbay Basin at 1.3 billion tons a year. The out-scaling method estimated the annual potential soil erosion at 3.2 billion tons. In conclusion the national estimate of soil erosion at 1.5 billion tons (ESLMIFW, 2010) is underestimated which may be attributed to direct application of USLE with less attention to the local biophysical realities. Research in developing modified equations and tools needs to be done for the Ethiopian conditions in order to produce results which are comparable to field measurements.

Parallel Session 5.1 (Conf Room 2)
Enabling Africa

Spatially Enabled Africa (41)
Aster Denekew Yilma, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, ET

Sustainable development efforts require complex decision making which involves the consideration of environmental, social and economic effects on the uses of resources. Recent advances in understanding the need for and approaches to sustainable development, addressing the economic and environmental dimensions of resource allocations and management, have benefited from the use of geospatial technology. This understanding necessitates the data must be collected and spatially referenced in a consistent manner, and requires ready access by decision makers and stakeholders to up-to-date and reliable information.
It is evident that availability of up to date datasets in Africa is almost negligible. If the data exists it is usually out dated to be reusable. Moreover, the availability of this existing datasets is sometimes not known by the other organizations and users. With out knowing the existence of these datasets or with lack of access and data sharing mechanisms others duplicate the effort to create the datasets that already exist, wasting the scarce human and financial resources in a nation.
At this age of knowledge economy, the need to more effectively leverage and share existing information is becoming inevitable in each of the organizations, and nations. Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is becoming known as a necessary infrastructure in the current global information society for sharing of geoinformation resources. Building a national spatial data infrastructure (NSDI) as part of other infrastructures such as transport, energy, etc. for making available development information is valuable for the nations' development effort. Such infrastructures have been described as information highways, linking environmental, socio-economic and institutional databases and providing the flow of information from local to national levels and eventually to global community.
In this regard, a lot of efforts have been underway by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) in the last decade to promote NSDI and support African countries in initiating and implementing it. It also promotes the spatially enabled government services in the continent. As a result of the work of ECA and its partners, many African countries are becoming aware about the benefits of NSDI, and some are in the process of setting up the mechanisms in place. However, the progress is still slow in many countries. There is still much work to be done to sensitize African governments and the society. ECA also take this to the level higher by promoting and leading the geoinformation management and governance in Africa, as part of the global initiative, global geospatial information management (GGIM). This paper, therefore, gives an idea about some of the progress and efforts made to date in the continent.

Where's the geospatial service?: new expectations for open government data (166)
Carmelle Terborgh, Esri, US

As citizens in all parts of the world acquire new mobile devices, many of these are smartphones or have SMS capabilities which could allow them to interact with geospatial services from the public sector. The public sector has yet to fully realize the benefits of sharing data openly - in order to maximize the investments that have been made in this data. The need for government to embrace open data policies and implement geospatial services has never been greater.

Citizens want to use geospatial services for everything from checking market prices for cattle to the weather forecast to exploring the social infrastructure in their vicinity - like health clinics, job opportunities, and schools. Provision of open geospatial services through a platform like ArcGIS Online enables governments to retain ownership of their data, while making information accessible in cloud infrastructure. Cloud GIS provides government a mechanism to scale and support the needs of citizens and allow for innovation from the private sector and young application developers. The resulting economic development and increased transparency will foster good governance and ideally, citizen feedback which will improve the data holdings of the government. Several example applications which enable the use of geospatial services from open data will be introduced and demonstrated.

The Changing Importance of African Cities within the World Economy (219)
Ronald Wall and Filipa Pajevic, IHS / Erasmus University, NL

Since 1980 foreign direct investments (FDI) have overtaken trade as the primary driver of the global economy. FDI is almost entirely in the hands of large corporations who invest in firms in different countries, with the intention of reducing production costs, acquiring physical and human capital, or gaining access to new markets. The top 500 multinationals today account for 90% of all global FDI and 50% of world trade. It is clear that urban development depends to a large degree on a city's importance within global investment flows. In a globalizing world, in which the mobility of capital and the number of places that are suitable for any particular business location increases, cities and regions increasingly compete to attract multinational corporations. These 'place wars' take place at local, regional, national, or even global spatial scales. In order to boost their economies and increase their standards of living, cities and regions need to work on their ability to successfully compete with other territories (i.e., competitive advantage) so as to attract FDI in leading sectors of the world economy.
Today, in a region of 645 million people, only 12 African cities play a significant role in the global economy, compared to Europe's 77 cities in a region of 732 million people. This underrepresentation is partly related to the young history of Sub-Saharan cities and the often discussed social, political, economic and environmental predicaments common to the continent. Nonetheless, in the past decade, several studies show that African cities are increasingly attracting FDI. For instance, “there is a new wave of optimism sweeping across Africa as growth rates climb, consumer spending rises and returns on investment escalate higher than most other parts of the world” (UNEP 2010) ; and “foreign direct investments for African companies have risen by 81% annually since 2002, more than double the growth rates for Latin America and Asia” (Boston Consultancy Group 2010) . However, although the growth rates are exceptional, Africa's relative share of global investment is only 2% (Wall et al 2011) . It therefore is important to empirically understand the changing role of African cities within global networks of investment. In this paper it will be shown, using GIS and statistical techniques, what the changing importance of African cities are (and their competitors) within the global network of FDI (2003 to 2012). This is done for different industrial sectors, based on the FDI Markets database of 125 000 investments, between 1500 cities worldwide. Furthermore, the underling social, economic and environmental determinants of African cities that attract these investments will be revealed. This knowledge can give these cities a future competitive advantage, which in today's world is necessary - and African cities are no exception.

Towards an Understanding of Social Cohesion in South Africa (209)
Tholang Mokhele and Gina Weir-Smith, Human Sciences Research Council, ZA

South Africa is a multi-faceted (diverse) country in terms of race, culture and religion. The South African nation is therefore regarded in the way that people are united, not by any racial or cultural trait, or even an attachment to a particular geography, but by a shared commitment to the principles of diversity, equality and justice. Social cohesion in relation to the place where people live has been expressed in terms of both urban and rural areas, but with more focus on urban areas. In urban areas, there are boundaries due to different levels or standards of living - for example, the spatial concentration of the chronically unemployed or disadvantaged people. More disadvantaged areas face particular problems of being socially cohesive and socially excluded at one and the same time. Migration also contributes towards social cohesion, especially in urban areas. In rural areas, the presence of extended families plays a major role in social capital and cohesion. Families tend to support or take responsibility for supporting their relatives. In general, socio-economic factors play a critical role in social cohesion with regard to location or place where people live. Therefore, this paper explored the spatial extent of socio-economic characteristics such as poverty, unemployment, multiple deprivation, education and level of income as proxies for social cohesion using South African poverty data 2006, Community Survey 2007, and indices of multiple deprivation 2007 at municipal and provincial levels. The reason for using 2006 and 2007 datasets was that these were roughly time-compatible to the South African Social Attitudes Survey (SASAS) which was conducted in 2009. The datasets were used in geographical information systems (GIS) for spatial representation and identification of geographical patterns. Selected questions related to social cohesion from SASAS 2009 were also analysed spatially in order to compare with the socio-economic statistics. The findings showed that these sets of socio-characteristics can be spatially represented and have an influence on social cohesion. Furthermore, the findings indicated that across the country a low percentage of people trust each other in general. At the same time very high percentages of racial distrust existed in three provinces, namely North West, Limpopo and Mpumalanga. North West also recorded the lowest level of general trust. In the North West, high levels of non-schooling also existed and this could be the factor which influenced the relationship between distrust and social cohesion. The authors concludes that the spatial extent of social cohesion can be seen in municipalities of high multiple deprivation, high unemployment, low education and high racial distrust. It is expected that these values will differ at a sub-municipality level. It is therefore recommended that further research be undertaken to find out exactly why this trend exists.

EGNOS for Africa - A Proposed System for Improving GPS Positioning across the Continent
Nina Costa, ND Consult, IT, Alberto Madrazo Fernandez and and Javier Ostolaza González, GMV, Spain, Eugene Avenant, SANSA, South Africa

A satellite based augmentation system (SBAS) uses additional messages from satellite broadcasts to support augment the GPS signal. Reference stations on the ground and after processing, send GPS correction information, via geostationary satellites, directly to users on the ground. This gives higher accuracy (around the 1 m mark) and a bounded spread of positioning errors. Additionally, such a system also alerts aviation users of a satellite (GPS) malfunction allowing its use during safety-critical approach and landings.
Several compatible SBAS systems have been deployed or are under deployment across the world, including WAAS in US, Mexico and Canada, MSAS in Japan, GAGAN in India, SDCM in Russia and EGNOS in Europe. The extension of the coverage to the whole African continent is under consideration, offering significant social and economic benefits in wide range of transport (aviation, rail, maritime, and vehicle & freight tracking) and non-transport market (precision agriculture, surveying, land management, etc.) sectors.
EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) is the European SBAS, which has been operational since October 2009 and was certified for safety of life use in March 2011. EGNOS is already being extended to North Africa and could readily be extended to sub-Saharan Africa with some adaptations and installation of ground reference stations throughout the African territory. The European Commission (EC) is supporting this initiative through their various international programmes, and is looking for buy-in from the regions and regional economic communities (REC). South Africa and the Francophile countries of West Africa (through their air navigation service provider, ASECNA) are currently undertaking feasibility studies for regional SBAS systems.
During 2013, trials were undertaken in South Africa using an SBAS real-time simulation tool where EGNOS-like corrections were taken from differential GPS reference stations (TRIGNET) and broadcast via the Internet using GSM communications. These included dynamic trials (vehicle and tractor tracking – the latter for precision agriculture) and static measurements. Results obtained during the trials will be presented, showing the improvements in SBAS positioning over GPS alone. In a scatter plot of the position errors, it will be shown that SBAS positioning has fewer outliers than GPS, or alternatively the positioning points are better bounded.
These trials have demonstrated that such augmented GPS signals will offer a significant improvement in accuracy and repeatability over GPS alone. In the absence of differential GPS systems for surveying and land management, EGNOS in Africa will offer the land surveying sector distinct benefits, especially as this EGNOS service will be offered free of charge to the user. As an example, let’s take a 10 ha parcel (100,000 m2 ) that is roughly represented by a square of 320 x320 m with a perimeter of 1,280 m. If the error of survey is ± 1 m, this could lead to an error along the perimeter of 1,280 x 1 = 1,280 m2 . This represents an overall error of 1.3%, which is acceptable.
We would like to thank the European Commission who funded these trials in South Africa, under the 7th Framework Programme for research, the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) for their fruitful collaboration and the national companies for their participation. This project was lead by a Spanish company, GMV, with the support of NDConsult, UK and Alpha Consult from Italy.

Parallel Session 5.2 (Conf Room 3)
Information Systems Development

Towards a spatial data infrastructure initial development in the Lower Mekong Basin: Case Study of using the MRC Procedures (PDIES) in the Thai context (99)
Bunthida Plengsaeng, Uta Wehn de Montalvo and Pieter van der Zaag, UNESCO-IHE, TH

The Mekong River Commission (MRC), an inter-governmental organization, is promoting data sharing in the context of transboundary basin management through the development of so-called Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing (PDIES). These were adopted in 2001 to facilitate and coordinate data and information exchange and sharing among the member countries of the Mekong Agreement (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). Spatial data is one of several types of data under these procedures which are being communicated and managed through the MRC Information System (MRC-IS). The MRC-IS has been made available to member countries and the public via a web portal, the MRC Data and Information Services. This can be considered an initial, multi-national SDI for a specified set of organizations that functions across national boundaries, namely the MRC Secretariat, the National Mekong Committees and their Line Agencies. However, a variety of recent sources, such as the Hua-Hin Declaration 2010 and documentation from the Mekong2Rio conference 2012 mention the need to improve the PDIES on the ground. These are indications that the PDIES has not yet been fully implemented.

This paper presents research which aims to assess implementation of the PDIES and the factors that influence the willingness to exchange and share spatial data under the PDIES. Given the limited number of organizations involved, a survey approach was not appropriate. Therefore, a mixed method approach of qualitative and quantitative research was conducted to gain insights into non-technical barriers such as beliefs and perceptions in the Thai context which can affect spatial data exchange and sharing behavior under the PDIES. The willingness to exchange and share spatial data was investigated by tracing the beliefs underlying the attitudes, social pressure, and perceived control held by key individuals within relevant organizations. The results show that the extent of current spatial data exchange and sharing under the PDIES is quite limited. Also, relevant individuals have not clearly understood the PDIES. Nevertheless, data such as time series hydrological data are commonly shared and are familiar to individuals. This research has mapped and highlighted the factors that influence the willingness to share and exchange data under the PDIES. For example, the main benefits for organizations were perceived to contribute to organization in terms of better decision making. The quantity and quality of data was expected to increase. However, difficulties such as a lack of interpersonal skills and negative past experience were recognized as influencing the willingness to share data. Furthermore, different levels of development among member countries were considered to hinder sharing. Not surprisingly, the main concern underlying the perceptions on the Thai side is that of national security regarding the exchange and sharing of data across national boundaries. This has led to the de facto principle of "share as necessary on a case by case basis" under the PDIES which falls short of what is envisaged by the PDIES. This research generated useful insights for addressing the obstacles to a more effective implementation of the PDIES so that it can serve its real purpose of contributing to transboundary basin management.

Geo-ICT Application in Land information Development in Rwanda (73)
Theodomir Mugiraneza and Ernest Uwayezu, National University of Rwanda, RW

For many decades, land registration in Rwanda had been client driven and cadastral data were collected through traditional methods. Surveyors had to carry out field surveys and office work manually while preparing parcel index maps or deed plan. This system was a burden for developing an integrated national cadastre. Since the introduction of public land registry in 1960s till 2004, only 10% of land parcels were formally registered and kept in the public registry. The registered lands were mainly belonging to either high income earners in urban areas and active business centers or to big investors and religious institutions in rural areas. Since 2007, the Rwanda Natural Resource Authority has embarked on systematic land registration and geo-ICT based techniques were adopted with the aim of speeding up land surveying for developing digital cadastre. The new system of land surveying is based on general boundary approach using modern technology including Remote Sensing products coupled with Participatory Geographic Information System. Since the application of geo-ICT in land information production, there is a need for assessing whether the adopted technology is in line with the surveying principles and expectations. The study also looks whether geo-ICT contributes to the development of land information in line with land policy goals, especially in its aspects of fostering land titling and land information development, . The study adopts goal-based evaluation method consisting of assessing whether expected benefits from geo-ICT use are observed or are being achieved. Primary data were obtained from field survey using questionnaire, interviews and direct observation. Secondary data were obtained from existing literature on the background of land administration in Rwanda and status of geo-ICT application in land related geo-spatial data acquisition and management. Findings show that based on progress made, GIS and remote sensing techniques are found as efficient tools and cost effective to speed up the process of land surveying and land titling. In line with the land registration programme, the goal was to demarcate around 10 million of land parcels countrywide. By December 2012, 10.3 million parcels were digitized (100%), and recorded in Land Tenure Regularization Database. 81% were recorded with full information on land rights claimants. Land titling progress shows that that all leasehold titles will be issued by December 2013 in the country. The use of geo-ICT in land registration increases the accountability, citizen involvement in boundary demarcation and contributes in developing national land information. Nevertheless, gaps in geo-ICT infrastructure, accuracy of produced datasets, skills in data management and inexistence of multi scale information flow are found as main bottlenecks to be dealt with for enhancing geo-ICT application in developing digital cadastre in Rwanda.

AEGOS - The Spatial Data Infrastructure for Georesources in Africa (192)
Mesfin Wubeshet Gebremichael, SEAMIC, TZ, Marc Urvois, BRGM, FR, John Duodu, Geological Survey Department, GH, Masresha Gebresilassie, Geological Survey of Ethiopia, ET, Rokhaya Samba, Direction of Mines and Geology, SN, Andreas Barth, BEAK Consultants, DE, Ketema Tadesse, SEAMIC, TZ, Andreas Knobloch, BEAK Consultants, DE

Identifying and providing access to geology-related data and knowledge underpins sustainable public policy-making across the various levels of governance. Collectively, the European geological surveys have a unique archive of public Africa-related geoscientific data that need to be shared and added value in conjunction with their African partners own information assets.

AEGOS is a pan African Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) of public, interoperable georesources data as well as user-oriented services to foster and strengthen a sustainable use in Africa, in order to assist policy-makers, development agencies, the private sector, geoscientific communities and civil society. The human component being at the centre of AEGOS Project infrastructure, common strategies are elaborated for capacity building and training programmes.

A consortium of twenty-three African and European national and regional geoscience organisations designed a one-stop information system to share the knowledge on minerals, non-energy raw materials, groundwater and geothermal energy in Africa. This web-enabled multilingual portal will facilitate a controlled access to a network of databases distributed over both continents. AEGOS being the contribution of geoscience to the Global Earth Observations System of System, it complies as much as possible with the GEOSS data sharing principle through the charter of partnership. More than metadata and maps, this pan-African SDI will include a facilitated access to added-value georesources data sets through interoperable services and user-oriented products. AEGOS is a coordinated application of the European Union-African Union strategic partnership for the sustainable development of raw materials by public/private stakeholders as well as research/education communities.

AEGOS will be involved in the geographic information systems component of the African Union Action Plan for implementing the Africa Mining Vision. As a partner project of the new African Minerals Development Centre (AMDC), it will contribute to enhance the benefits of the mineral wealth of the continent in the poverty alleviation and economic development of the African nations, by effective and efficient use of georesources information in support of these efforts.

Secured land ownership in Rwanda: assessing the impacts of the land tenure regularisation programme (225)
Felicia O. Akinyemi and Fred Nkubito, Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kigali Institute of Science and Technology, RW

Securing rights in land is indispensable for guaranteeing the diverse land-based means of livelihoods in society. This is a prerequisite for socio-economic growth and poverty reduction. Secure land tenure is recognized as a key element to meeting the MDG target 11 which is aimed at achieving significant improvement in the lives of 100 million slums dwellers by 2015. Accelerated economic growth and poverty reduction through secure land ownership are the main motivations for embarking on the land tenure regularisation (LTR) process in Rwanda. The success of this process required reform which involved changing the existing land tenure systems from traditional/customary arrangements to less complex and modernized land tenure mechanisms guided by a core LTR programme which is considered to be highly participatory.

The LTR process which started in 2007 with three pilot sites is now implemented in all parts of the country. The procedure was first to sensitise all citizens about the benefits of the LTR, constitute land committees at cell level (the cell is the fourth administrative level) to interact with the people and drive the process at the grassroot, ownership of land is established, trained parasurveyors work on the field with the people to identify and demarcate parcel boundaries on orthophoto based index maps which are then digitized in the office. The outputs are then sent back to the field and the people have two weeks to check for errors, etc. If there are no disputes, land titles are issued otherwise when there are land disputes cases are referred to the court (village committees for resolving disputes), and the land title is still processed but it will not be issued to anyone until disputes are resolved.

After some years of implementing the LTR in Rwanda, this research seeks to assess its socio-economic impact by focusing on issues relating to land ownership. Two sectors cells were selected as case studies in Gasabo district to represent urban and rural context. This district is one of the three districts that make up the Kigali city council and was chosen as a pilot site at the start of the LTR. To measure socio-economic impacts of the LTR, data was obtained from a sample of 120 respondents using a cluster sampling technique and structured interviews. Several indicators of land ownership were examined such as security of land tenure, land and housing related transactions, access to mortgage financing, investments in landed properties and frequency of land-based disputes.

The findings revealed that as at year 2013, 84% of sampled households held a land title, and it had multiple effects on other aspects of their socio-economic well being. It facilitated many households to access credit and majority of these households invested on landed properties. The results further showed that respondents were involved in transactions such as land and housing sales, land related disputes reduced and there seems to be a rural-urban dichotomy to the benefits accruable through the implementation of the LTR.

Digital Urban Basemap Preparation From Hr Satellite Imagery For Facilitating Land Ownership And Sustainable Economic Development In Africa. Case Study: Orthophoto & Base Maps From Ikonos Stereo Satellite Imagery For 15 Selected Towns In Ethiopia (237)
Jemal Ali Beshir, 3C PLC, ET

Africa has experienced rapid growth in urban populations that lead to highest urban growth in the size and number of urban places in the developing world. But this rapid urbanization in Africa has characterized by rising of illegal settlements, slum areas, urban poverty and economic inequality that failed to bring sustainable economic development.

Therefore it is an urgent need to adopt digital photogrammetry and GIS and preparing efficient digital urban BaseMap and geodatabase system which is a vital pre-requisite for having pragmatic plan and strategy of urban development.

This paper introduces the methodology of digital Urban BaseMap preparation from high resolution satellite imagery that revolutionized the process of thematic mapping and spatial data base creation for speedup preparation of urban development plans and avoid the existing urban problems associated with unplanned and ad hoc growth.

Parallel Session 5.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)

Role of Geospatial applications in Environmental Health Management vis-à-vis status of its application in India - A brief review (93)
Mahender Kotha, Goa University, IN

Health and Education are the foundations of social growth and development of any nation and careful management of health geospatially to ensure better health for all citizens. Health for all by the year 2000 was a slogan of the past and health information for all is the present day necessity. The prime goal of environmental and health management is to reduce existing risks and prevent the introduction of new uncontrolled risks. In recent years, it has become a must for assessing health risks associated with environmental hazards and Geospatial Science and Technologies (GSTs) provides an excellent platform for data collection, analyses and visualization of a variety of data. With its powerful computational and data analytical tools it also helps to reveal trends, tendencies and interrelationships. GSTs serve as a common platform for convergence of multi-disease surveillance activities. Concept of spatial epidemiology is being used to assess health risks associated with health hazards. The spatial component of health data can play a crucial role in helping to explain variability in risk because of status of health, environmental hazards, growing population numbers, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and other variable that vary across space. Every country should be aware of the health status of its population, to establish priorities to allocate resources, to develop and evaluate prevention programs, to educate the population and to be able to intervene in major shortcomings in health status. In a typical interdisciplinary activity GSTs applications in the field of public and environmental health, common concepts and a common frame of reference are a prerequisite for communication between specialists.
The application of GSTs for Health Management grew dramatically from late 1980s onwards elsewhere in developing nations however, developing nations like India such applications is recent phenomenon. Although there has been a growing adaptation of the Geospatial Technologies in health sector in few countries but still there is a wide gap in developing countries which is essentially due to lack of awareness and expertise. Despite the serious efforts of UN and other national governments, under various developmental programs the application of GSTs in Environmental Health Management is still in its infancy state in most of the developing and under-developed nations in Asia and Africa. Present paper while reviewing the applications of GSTs in Environmental health management, also presents the status of GST application in health sector and its scope for future implementation several new programs for better management of health in India.

Nigeria Health and Mapping Summit of 2011: Improving Health Outcomes through NGDI (152)
Ganiy Agbaje, National Space Research & Development Agency (NASRDA), NG, Aderemi Azeez, Federal Ministry of Health, NG, Kola Oyediran and James Stewart, MEASURE Evaluation, US

Geospatial data provides valuable context when addressing health issues. In the health and social services context, geospatial data and maps can be valuable tools to direct interventions, shape policy or empower communities.

The development of national geospatial data infrastructure (NGDI) and the application of geographic information systems (GIS)-which are essential for mapping-are central to the Nigerian effort to eradicate poverty, achieve food security, fight diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, reverse environmental degradation and increase the pace of industrialization.

The use of geographic approaches in improving health outcomes, including the fight against HIV/AIDS, is increasing; however, health ministries, AIDS coordinating agencies and other social service ministries often lack capacity to use geospatial data and tools such as GIS for improving health outcomes. These organizations can benefit from building collaborative relationships with national mapping agencies (NMAs) and other NGDI coordinating bodies and existing in-country capacity to enhance decision making for health sector programmes and to create an action plan to help address identified challenges.

The Nigeria Health and Mapping Summit held in October 2011 was in fulfilment of one of the recommendations of the CODIST I Pre-conference Workshop titled 'Enlisting National Mapping Agencies in the Fight against HIV/AIDS: Building Partnerships with Ministries of Health and Social Services and National AIDS Commissions,' which was hosted by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) in April 2009 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The summit was a collaborative effort between the Federal Government of Nigeria and MEASURE Evaluation, a USAID-funded international health project, with additional support from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). The summit was the first meeting of its kind at the country level in Africa, representing the first time government representatives from the health and mapping sectors met at the inter-ministerial or inter-agency levels to harmonize national efforts to improve health outcomes through more effective leveraging of NGDI.

The two-day summit focused on strengthening the NGDI within the nation's health sector and provided opportunities for key actors in the NGDI and health sectors to discuss strategies for sharing geospatial data and building capacity to support national health endeavours. The meeting allowed attendees to identify the primary issues affecting efforts to improve health outcomes as well as opportunities to improve coordination of efforts. The summit communiqué, which contained resolutions and action items, was presented to the executive and legislative arms of the government and other stakeholders.

The Nigeria Health and Mapping Summit is expected to evolve into a regular event, and can serve as a model for other countries to follow. To this end, the proposed presentation/paper will provide a description of the summit, including the rationale, and offer lessons learned on key aspects of the summit, such as how the event was organized, collaborating agencies, the steering committee, participants, and the communiqué. The presentation/paper will also discuss progress on health and mapping sector cooperation since the summit.

GIS-based accessibility analysis- a mixed method approach to determine public primary health care demand in South Africa (160)
Hunadi Mokgalaka, University of Cape Town, ZA, Gerbrand Mans, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, ZA, Julian Smit, University of Cape Town, ZA, David McKelly, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, ZA

The spatial realities and dynamics of a changing population with changing health care needs require regular and logical methods to evaluate and assist in primary health care (PHC) planning. Geographical access is an important aspect in the planning process. GIS-based accessibility analysis is a logical method which can be applied to test the degree to which equitable access is obtained. The GIS analysis is however based on the assumption of rational choice, i.e. a person will always go to their closest facility. Inputs to the analysis are supply (capacity of facilities) and demand (people seeking the service) estimates. In South Africa PHC is a dual system made up of private and public health care facilities. Private PHC is expensive and only affordable to affluent citizens or people with medical insurance, and does not form a part of this investigation. Two challenges with respect to GIS-based accessibility analysis for public PHC services within a South African context that emerge are: (a) how accurate is a rational choice based model compared to people's actual decisions; and (b) what method is the best in determining demand in the absence of accurate databases indicating public versus private health care usage? In this study GIS analysis is applied to determine three distinct demand scenarios based on a combination of three variables: (a) household income category, (b) age, and (c) average facility visits. GIS is used to determine catchment areas for each facility, allocating demand to its closest facility limiting access based on facility capacity and access via a road network. The catchment area analysis results from each of the three demand scenarios are compared with actual usage rates in the form of headcounts and mapped origins of users at each facility. Preliminary results indicate that the catchment areas of the facilities for the three scenarios appear to follow the same spatial pattern. Correlation coefficient results indicate that the modelled demand for all three scenarios have a moderate positive correlation with the facility headcounts with scenarios two and three having a slightly higher correlation.

Identification of environmental parameters and risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia by using geographical information systems and a statistical approach (256)
Ahmed Seid, Teshome Tesgaw and Endalmaw Gadissa, AHRI, ET

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a vector-borne disease strongly influenced by environmental factors, has (re)-emerged in Ethiopia during the last two decades and is currently of increasing public health concern. Based on VL incidence in each locality (kebele) documented from federal or regional health bureaus and/or hospital records in the country, geographical information systems (GIS), coupled with binary and multivariate logistic regression methods, were employed to develop a risk map for Ethiopia with respect to VL based on soil type, altitude, rainfall, slope and temperature. The risk model was
subsequently validated in selected sites. This environmental VL risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 86% with mean land surface temperature and soil type found to be the best predictors of VL. The total population at risk was estimated at 3.2 million according to the national population census in 2007. The approach presented here should facilitate
the identification of priority areas for intervention and the monitoring of trends as well as providing input for further epidemiological and applied research with regard to this disease in Ethiopia.

Parallel Session 5.4 (Caucus Room 11)
Earth Observation for Forestry and Agriculture (Agricab)
Moderators: Tim Jacobs and Lieven Bydekerke, Workshop Description
See the workshop description.

Enhancing African EO capacities for agriculture and forestry management as contribution to GEOSS: the AGRICAB project (114)
Tim Jacobs, Carolien Tote, Lieven Bydekerke, and Antoine Royer, VITO, BE, Ben Maathuis, University of Twente - Faculty ITC, NL, Sérgio de Paula Pereira, INPE, BR, Mónica Díez, DEIMOS Imaging, ES, Tesfaye O. Korme, RCMRD, KE, Issifou Alfari, AGRHYMET, NE, Hervé Trebossen, OSS, TN, Renaud Mathieu, CSIR, ZA, An Notenbaert, ILRI, KE, Seyfu Bekele, GEOSAS, ET

In many countries in Africa, forest and agricultural resources are under stress due to, among others, growing populations, land reforms and climate variability, affecting the livelihood of millions of people. Earth Observation (EO) contributes significantly to the information needed to sustainably manage these resources and, for this reason, is integrated more and more into the daily work at African institutes. The main focus of the project entitled 'A Framework for enhancing earth observation capacity for agriculture and forest management in Africa as a contribution to GEOSS' (AGRICAB, http://www.agricab.info), is therefore to reinforce African capacities in the use of earth observation technology for agriculture and forestry management. To achieve this, the project, that started in Oct 2011 and receives funding from the EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research (FP7), builds upon 17 partners located in 12 different countries: 5 in Europe, 10 in Africa and 1 in South America.

Leveraging twinning R&D partnerships between African and European institutes, together with strong training, awareness raising and user support efforts, fitted together into a comprehensive framework for capacity enhancement, the project's main aim is to develop use cases in thematic areas related to monitoring and management of agriculture (crop yield forecasting, crop mapping, statistics, early warning), livestock & rangeland and forest and fire. This involves a 4-step process, whereby African partners: (i) are exposed to state-of-the art techniques and models for agricultural and forest monitoring, (ii) discover these techniques and models through training and stakeholder workshops, (iii) gain experience in the application of these techniques and models on the local conditions, and finally, (iv) adapt appropriate models for integration in the local operational workflows. While the latter two are focused on a set of focus areas in Kenya, Niger, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa and Northern Africa, the training and awareness raising are done also at wider, international scales, in particular with UN bodies, Africa's economic regions and GEO.
Underpinning these efforts, AGRICAB aims to ensure continued, reliable access to relevant Earth Observation, both online and through GEONETCast - the worldwide satellite broadcast capability of the GEO System of Systems (GEOSS). While GEONETCast continues to show its value in supporting growing networks of users in Africa, it is important that this data access (i) is combined with local data sources (in situ measurements, national statistics, etc), (ii) follows upcoming satellite evolutions such as PROBA-V and CBERS-3 and (iii) adds other relevant data sources such as high resolution optical DEIMOS-1 images. To further ease the use of these data, in particular time series thereof, significant effort is spent in further developing and combining relevant free and/or open source software packages, notably 52N/ITC's ILWIS and its toolbox extensions, VITO's SPIRITS and VGTExtract and INPE's TerraView and its GeoDMA extension to name a few.

Just over half-way through AGRICAB's 3.5 year lifetime, it is time to show the project's progress, zooming in on the key ingredients of data access, software and international training, as well as outlining the remaining work and the contributions to GEOSS.

Answering user and capacity building requirements through use cases on crops, livestock and forests (116)
Carolien Tote, VITO, BE, Hendrik Boogaard, Alterra, NL, Tomaso Ceccarelli, Consorzio ITA, IT, Hervé Trebossen, OSS, TN, An Notenbaert, ILRI, KE, Bakary Djaby, ULG, BE, Renaud Mathieu, CSIR, ZA, Tim Jacobs, VITO, BE, Lieven Bydekerke, VITO, BE

As humanity places ever greater demands on the Earth's resources, a greater ability to understand global change and to predict how natural systems will respond to human activities and policies becomes more vital every day. An important tool is remote sensing, which provides recurrent information on natural resources. The need for comprehensive, systematic and accurate global agricultural, livestock and forest monitoring is likely to continue to grow in the face of more frequent and extreme climate events such as floods and drought, increasing energy needs, and increasing demand for food driven by population growth and economic development.
Training programs are essential for building capacity in Earth observation and geo-information sciences, particularly in developing countries. A key challenge is to enhance scientific and RS capacity in Africa to enable institutes to independently monitor and generate information on agricultural and forest resources to adequately support management and policy actions. By linking European and African research, the AGRICAB project helps to address this need in the areas of agriculture and forest management. The project is based upon interconnected research activities in use case countries, acting as a 'flywheel' to enhance capacity across a wide range of stakeholders.
AGRICAB is implementing research use cases in different fields (crop production systems, livestock systems and forest systems) and building capacity across Africa through national and regional workshops. African partners are exposed to, discover and experience the use of Earth observation data and its ingestion into predictive models, addressing particular issues on agricultural modeling and mapping, early warning, irrigated agriculture, agricultural statistics, livestock monitoring and forestry.
Agriculture is a key economic sector in Africa with more than 60% of its population depending upon it. Good management of agricultural resources, in order to ensure stable food supply, is imperative to the livelihoods of millions of people and is key for development, but requires good information to base decisions on. Remote sensing can contribute significantly to these information needs and for this reason more and more institutes and agencies integrate this technology into their daily work. Use cases are being developed on different aspects of crop monitoring in Senegal, Kenya, Mozambique and North Africa. Remote sensing is used for early warning and qualitative crop monitoring, for agricultural mapping, for the generation of agricultural statistics in combination with ground surveys, and for crop yield forecasting.
The livestock system use cases focus on a variety of aspects of livestock system monitoring: from operational biomass modeling for early warning and operational forecasting in Senegal and Niger, based on time series of remotely sensed vegetation indicators, over index-based livestock insurance in Kenya, to global livestock production system mapping and improved forage production estimation using advanced modeling techniques. Training activities focus on a wide range of countries in West and East Africa: Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Senegal and Niger.
The forest component research covers both tree cover mapping and fire mapping and analysis use cases. The tree cover mapping research is focused on the assessment of SAR-based model for multi-scale mapping of continuous tree cover products, and associated errors, focusing on woodlands and savannas in southern Africa. The aim is to explore C-band SAR sensors, the only currently viable option of low cost data on the short term been with the Sentinel-1 satellite, the SAR platform of the operational ESA Sentinels for GMES. There is also a need for informed, data-driven discussion on fire management options and possibilities for Africa. These are more pressing as initiatives to alter fire in Africa for carbon abatement programs become a reality. The ongoing fire work relies on the analysis of continental EO-based fire datasets for understanding drivers of spatio-temporal dynamics, as a direct contribution of EO to policy and management. The forest component therefore aims at both the development of new EO products, and the exploitation of existing EO datasets.
The use cases that are being developed in the use case countries, are built upon the ongoing roles in policy and decision making of the African partners, and intend to make better and increased use of the available satellite data sets and tools. Significant efforts are dedicated to training and awareness building concerning the advantage and benefits of the use of remote sensing in crops, livestock and forest management.

Mapping woody cover in semi-arid savannahs using C- and L-band SAR imagery (109)
(Abel Ramoelo) Renaud Mathieu, Laven Naidoo, Russell Main and Moses Cho, Earth Observation, Natural Resource and the Environment, CSIR, Pretoria, ZA, Konrad Wessels, Remote Sensing Research Unit, Meraka Institute, CSIR, Pretoria, ZA, Brigitte Leblon, Faculty of Forestry, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, Greg Asner, Department of Global Ecology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, US

Woody cover plays an important role in a wide range of ecological processes and has strong implication for biodiversity conservation, energy security, food security, and climate change in Africa. In South Africa available spatialized woody cover datasets are mostly coarse-scale global dataset which have not been widely validated in local biomes such as savannahs and woodlands. “3D” remote sensing technologies such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are the most promising approaches to map vegetation morphology and structure. Remote sensing techniques and models need to be developed for savannahs and woodlands, which are characterized by small scale imbrications of the tree and grass layers where complicating disturbance factors occur (e.g. fire, mega herbivore, phenology heterogeneity). In this research we report on the extraction of woody cover map in semi-arid savannahs of the north-east of South Africa using a combination of high resolution C-band and L-Band SAR imagery, RADARSAT-2 (5m) and ALOS PALSAR (12.5m) respectively. A number of scenarios were assessed considering SAR frequencies (L- and C-band), season(s) of imagery (autumn, winter, spring, summer), data polarimetric status (dual vs. full polarimetry), and prediction models (e.g. multi-linear stepwise, artificial neural network, random forest). L-band (ALOS PALSAR) was found superior to C-band (RADARSAT-2) for predicting woody cover as derived from extended tracks of 1-m airborne LiDAR datasets. C-band alone also yielded significant relationships, which can be seen as encouraging since Sentinel-1, the future operational SAR satellite of the GMES series, is C-band. Multi-frequency models (i.e. combining L- and C-band) provided significantly improved predictions of woody cover. Best acquisition dates for SAR imagery was found to be in winter when most leaves are off, and conditions are dry. Polarimetric decomposition data (Freeman, Van Zyl, Cloude-Potier) were assessed and did not provide significant improvement over single-polarized bands, although as expected the volume component yielded similar results to cross-polarized bands (HV). Best models were found to be random forest in most scenarios.

Mutual support of GeoS-NetAfrica and GEONETCast for education and environmental surveillance in Africa (57)
Lazare Tia, Institute of Tropical Geography, UFR-SHS, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, CI, Ben H.P. Maathuis, Department of Water Resources, ITC-University of Twente, NL

In November 2012, GeoS-NetAfrica (African Experts Network for Environmental Surveillance) was established during a regional GEONETCast AGRICAB workshop (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso) with the main objective “to contribute to strengthening capacities and to create platforms for the acquisition, harmonization, valorization and sharing of geo-spatial data for decision-making related to environmental monitoring in Africa”. With a strategy to complement and build on other existing activities (notably GEO, AMESD-MESA, AGRICAB), a number of fields have been identified for further collaboration such as (i) Environment and health: mapping potential areas of proliferation of malaria vectors (vector control), (ii) Management of water resources: estimation of volumes and spatial dynamics of surface water resources, (iii) Climate Change: environmental disturbances, food security and natural disasters and (iv) Man and environment: human actions and degradation of the natural environment. All fields defined are in line with a number of GEO ‘Societal Benefit Areas’. Initial representatives from countries participating are: Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Niger, Côte d’Ivoire, Benin, Central African Republic, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Currently the network is consisting mainly of francophone countries, other countries from (western) Africa are encouraged to participate.

Short term activities planned include the setup of (low cost) GEONETCast receiving station infrastructure (at universities and research centres) in the various countries, the use and valorization of the data received and provision of training. Already the first stations for this purpose are established at the Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and collaboration is ongoing with other existing station operators (in the framework of other ongoing programmes – projects like MESA and EAMNET).

Developments in the field of open access to geo-information are rapidly evolving. More and more data is available using telecommunication based data dissemination systems and low cost ground reception infrastructure can be established using off-the-shelf components, allowing reception of high volume data loads without internet connectivity. Having access to these data streams, providing images and derived products in (near) real-time, is an important asset not only to the higher education sector and capacity building activities, but also to support (creation of) various other environmental applications and provision of these analysis results for decision-making.

The open networking, e.g. to collaborate with and build on existing activities and to include higher education and research is particularly relevant and important. The challenge ahead is how to effectively link such networks with other African and international activities (like GEO), establishing clear communication lines to exchange on the provided data and applications developed (and their results), training opportunities, establish/update GEONETCast reception stations – services amongst others.

The article will further elaborate on the objectives and status of the network, on-going activities and will provide an outlook of the network and the central role GEONETCast plays in achieving the GeoS-NetAfrica objectives.


Combining high resolution and multi-temporal remote sensing data for crop mapping in Africa (117)
Carolien Tote, VITO, BE, Bamba Diop, CSE, SN, Vincent Imala, DRSRS, KE, Charles Situma, DRSRS, KE, Tomaso Ceccarelli, Consorzio ITA, IT, David Remotti, Consorzio ITA, IT, Qinghan Dong, VITO, BE

Agriculture is a key economic sector in Africa with more than 60% of its population depending upon it. Good management of agricultural resources, in order to ensure stable food supply, is imperative to the livelihoods of millions of people and is key for development, but requires good information to base decisions on. Remote sensing can contribute significantly to these information needs and for this reason more and more institutes and agencies integrate this technology into their daily work. This research focuses on the use of remote sensing technology for crop mapping in key areas in Kenya, Senegal and Mozambique. During the 2013 long rains crop season, one high resolution RapidEye and three Deimos-1 (between April-July/2013) are acquired over the Western Region of Kenya. Also over the Kaolack region of Senegal, RapidEye and Deimos-1 acquisitions are planned during the 2013 crop season. Moreover, extensive field surveys are executed in order to generate crop area statistics and ground truth data for image interpretation. This extensive datasets provides interesting cases to test different methods for combining very high (RapidEye) and multi-temporal high resolution (Deimos) satellite data with hyper-temporal SPOT-VGT/MODIS products with lower spatial resolution, in order to generate crop masks in the study areas. A similar case study will be implemented in Mozambique in the 2014 crop season.

Validation of satellite based rainfall estimates for agricultural monitoring in Mozambique (118)
Carolien Tote, VITO, BE, Domingos Patricio, INAM, MZ, Jonas Zucule, INAM, MZ, Hendrik Boogaard, Alterra, NL, Raymond van der Wijngaart, Alterra, NL

The agricultural sector, one of the main drivers of the Mozambican economy, is affected by several challenges related to climate variability and change. Especially rainfall variability is reflected in the productivity of (rain fed) agricultural systems. Rainfall variability, in terms of its onset, cessation, amount and distribution, and related drought or floods, can lead to either low crop yields or total crop failure across the country. Agriculture early warning monitoring systems make use of near-real time vegetation indicators and rainfall estimates derived from satellite sensors. The use of satellite based rainfall estimates is especially valuable in a country as Mozambique, where rainfall shows high temporal and spatial variability, and the network of ground stations is very low. However, the quality of these datasets needs to be assessed. This study focuses on the validation of dekadal FEWSNET Rainfall Estimate v2.0 (available 2001-now) and TARCAT v2.0 (available 1983-now). Cumulative 10-daily observations (1994-now) from twelve rain gauge stations, distributed over all regions, were used for validating satellite based estimations in the overlapping period (2001-2012). Methodologies include (1) quantitative pixel-by-pixel comparison statistics, which evaluate the performance of the satellite products in estimating the amount of the rainfall, (2) categorical validation statistics based on overall and per-station contingency tables, which are used to assess rain-detection capabilities, and (3) overall and per-station cumulative probability functions. The first results indicate that both the FEWSNET RFE and TARCAT datasets show underestimations of very high rainfall events. The TARCAT dataset corresponds less to the observed values, showing higher bias, higher errors and lower efficiency. FEWSNET RFE shows a higher probability of detection, lower false alarm ratio and higher critical success index. The cumulative density functions highlight overestimations of TARCAT of very low rainfall events, and underestimations of higher and extreme rainfall events. The better performance of FEWNET RFE is most likely linked to the use of Global Telecommunication System (GTS) station data, possibly including some of the stations used in this study, for removing bias after processing the satellite data. An independent station dataset will be gathered in order to be able to perform an independent validation.

Evaluation of rainfall excess and deficit on crops and vegetation status in Mozambique using NDVI and RFE satellite images (195)
Domingos Mosquito, Bento Cambula, Isaias Raiva, Augusto Januario, and Jonas Zucule, INAM, MZ, Carolien Tote, VITO, BE

Rainfed agriculture in Mozambique is the main socio-economic activity, involving 80% of the population of the country. Water, coming from precipitation, is the main limitation for vegetation development and crop growth. As a result, food security depends mainly on precipitation which is unpredictable and variable in both time and space. An excess or deficit of water due to rainfall variability will affect the vegetation/crops along their growing cycle. Therefore, there is a need for a continuous multi-temporal and spatially explicit monitoring process of water availability, in order to help decision making processes.
The national meteorological stations network is sparse and not representative to be used for spatially explicit precipitation monitoring focusing to the agriculture sector in terms of onset and end of the rains. For this reason, the use of satellite remote sensing products with relatively high temporal but low spatial resolution such as the rainfall estimates (RFE) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be a better alternative for monitoring vegetation/crops growing cycle. The NDVI gives a general idea on vegetation status, and by comparing actual values to long term averages over the same period of the year, anomalies in vegetation/crop growth can be identified. A time series analysis of RFE and NDVI using SPIRITS software can be a valuable option for vegetation/crops monitoring as well as to detect their response to water availability. This is important information for yield evaluation and prediction. The quick looks of RFE and NDVI time series images combined with the ENSO information, in-situ rainfall and crop yield data may help to detect the anomalous situations such as failure of the season due to drought or floods. In addition, this near-real time monitoring process can help on the preparedness of action plans to overcome any anomalous situation for right decision making on food security. The final goal is to derive new products that can be used in the regularly published meteorological bulletins in order to analyse the ongoing season.
Preliminary results show that RFE and NDVI are useful sources of information to analyse the start and end of the seasons and to evaluate impacts of rainfall on vegetation and crops. The season in Mozambique in general starts in October and ends between March and April. Usually, the peak of rainfall is followed by the peak of NDVI due to the fact that plants react to rainfall with one to two decades time lag. Output products include maps of actual vegetation and rainfall and anomalies, maps of the start of season shift and graphs of temporal evolution. The SPIRITS software includes functions to automate the data processing chain in an operational framework.

Using newly-developed spatial fire datasets to understand the links between people and fire in Africa (104)
Sally Archibald and Renaud Mattieu, CSIR, ZA, Carolien Tote, VITO, BE

Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of remotely-sensed fire data in Africa. The MODIS fire products are used for planning, management and policy in Africa and disseminated through various user-friendly platforms. However, the type of data used and the inferences made are still quite basic – very few users go beyond active fire counts, which have limited usefulness when trying to calculate area burned, to assess impacts on tree-grass dynamics, or to look for change over time. Burned area data are available, but more difficult to use as they are produced in monthly raster images which can be overwhelming. The CSIR has developed several new fire data products for Africa from the basic MODIS products. These include fire size, fire number, fire frequency, and fire intensity – variables which are easier to interpret, and can be used to informed management and policy decisions around fire. These data are also particularly useful when aiming to understand interactions between people and fire, as one of the main ways that people alter fire is through changing the number and size of fire events and this is not something that is easy to pick up with the standard MODIS products. Here we report on the uptake of these novel remotely-sensed fire data in Africa, and the insights we have gained from these products about interactions between people, vegetation, climate and fire.

Monitoring irrigated agriculture in an arid zone : Case of the North Western Aquifer System (133)
Hervé Trebossen and Djamel Latrech, Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel, TN, Carolien Tote, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, BE, Ben Maathuis, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, NL

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) shared by Algeria, Libya and Tunisia covers a total area of over one million km2 and represents a theoretical water reservoir of about 60.10.3 billion m3. This large few renewable aquifer is the main water resource for irrigated agriculture in the arid zones of these three countries. Over the last 50 years, water demand driven by irrigated agriculture and withdrawals of groundwater have risen sharply : from an estimated 0.6 billion m3 in 1950, withdrawal has risen to 2.5 billion m3 in 2000. The intense withdrawal evolution caused a number of major risks resulting from its development: strong interference between the countries, end of artesianism, natural discharge depletion, increased excessive drawdowns, water salinity.

Since 1999, the Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (OSS) supports the riparian countries with tools and methodologies to improve knowledge on the aquifer. Since 2003, a permanent consultation mechanism has been set-up by the three countries in order to update and exchange data and information on the aquifer system. This consultation mechanism could be considered similar to a transboundary basin authority.

Within AGRICAB project and in coordination with NWSAS programme, OSS coordinates the North African use case focussing on the irrigated agriculture sector. As a continuity of past ESA funded Aquifer and AfDB funded GeoAquifer projects, AGRICAB will involve and strengthen capacities of national technical services in charge of water as well as agriculture sectors from Algeria, Libya and Tunisia. Activities are dedicated to mapping irrigated agriculture extent at small and large scales as well as research actions to use remote sensing based evapotranspiration products in building a regional model for the withdrawal on a basin (NWSAS) basis in linkages with land cover maps and regional in-situ databases. A GEONETCast low cost receiving station will be installed at OSS premises in order to insure availability of low resolution EO data and products to national stakeholders.

Parallel Session 5.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Energy & Environment

SDI for Renewable Energy Resources: The case of the Greek Regulatory Authority for Energy (110)
Theodoros Vakkas and Gabriel Mavrellis, Geospatial Enabling Technologies Ltd, GR, Stelios Markogiannakis, The Regulatory Authority for Energy, GR, Simos Kamilieris and Andreas Mitrou, Geospatial Enabling Technologies Ltd, GR

The Greek Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE), in cooperation with Geospatial Enabling Technologies (GET) Ltd, developed a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in accordance to the provisions of the Greek Law 3882/2010 which harmonizes the INSPIRE Directive (2007/2/EC). The project goals and objectives included not only the compliance with the requirements of the Greek Law and the improvement of their internal procedures, but the provision of higher quality public services to stakeholders (companies, investors, citizens, public law bodies), as well. The development of the SDI was based on Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS), while existing hardware and software infrastructure was fully exploited.
RAE is an independent administrative authority in Greece, established in July 2000, with competences directly related to the Greek energy market. Among its duties are the monitoring of operation of all sectors of the energy market (electricity, natural gas, oil products, renewable energy sources, cogeneration of electricity and heat etc), collection and processing of information from companies in the energy sector, reporting to the Greek government and the Commission, advising etc. The Authority immediately realised the need for central management of both geospatial and attributive information in order to exercise effectively their duties, setting the need for access to quality information as a priority. In this context, they integrated Information, Telecommunication, Knowledge Management, Process Standardisation Systems, and business operations with an enterprise Geographical Information System (GIS), through which geospatial information lifecycle was predefined, standardised and maintained.
Being both an originator and owner of geospatial data, related to renewable energy resources, the RAE should comply with the regulatory framework for the generation, management, and dissemination of geospatial information (Law No 3882/2010, INSPIRE Directive. Thus, RAE took advantage of the new perspectives, created from the adoption of the Directive, and proceeded to upgrade the existing System with the development and integration of a Spatial Data Infrastructure.
The RAE SDI design was based on the analysis of RAE’s business operations, user needs and requirements. At the same time, RAE’s internal procedures on the management of geospatial information were restructured and the System was enriched with sophisticated tools, using open standards, incorporating all the components of a typical SDI. Regarding the technological aspect, the SDI development was (is) based on FOSS while maintaining existing commercial software. Particularly, the GET SDI Portal ® (developed and distributed by GET Ltd under the General Public License v3), the OpenGeo Suite and Geonetwork OpenSource were used. The Geoportal, namely “Geospatial Map”, constitutes of the Infrastructure’s interface to the public (http://www.rae.gr/geo/ & http://www.rae.gr/geo/?lang=EN).
Apart from being a Web mapping application (Web GIS), the RAE Geospatial Map is a valuable tool for consuming third-party SDI services at a national and international level. Obviously, the application has been customised in certain areas accordingly to the RAE users’ requirements. Main features of the application are: a) RAE’s and third-party geospatial data visualisation, b) advanced data discovery and download services, c) search in third-party metadata catalogues.
RAE maintains and supports the system and its services with own means, hoping that the SDI added value services, will further serve transparency and democracy. In the meantime, RAE is in the process of designing and incorporating new functionality and level 5 services while trying to achieve full compliance with the INSPIRE Directive (data conformance, quality of services, etc).
RAE developed an SDI, which represents one of the first efforts to provide Public Sector’s geospatial data to the Greek public in accordance to the specifications of the INSPIRE Directive. Following the latest trend in application development, the Infrastructure was developed with open source technologies and RAE offers free and interoperable access to their geospatial data and metadata, implementing high quality e-government services.

Cloud GIS in Geothermal Resource Data Management: A Case Study of the Kenya Electricity Generating Company (96)
Daniel Mwaura, Kenya Electricity Generating Company, KE, Hunja Waithaka, Jomo Kenyatta, University of Agriculture and Technology, KE

GIS technology has revolutionalized data analysis and dissemination in a myriad of disciplines. Geothermal resource development has been a major beneficiary of the budding technology especially within Kenya. Most of the GIS applications for geothermal resource development have been desktop based, utilizing the technology’s inherent powerful tools to prospect for geothermal potential.

This project evaluates the shortcomings at the Kenya Electricity Generating Company, where there is great need of harmonizing and sharing centrally stored geothermal data over a large number of departments. Currently disseminating this data is difficult due to lack of a well structured and efficient system.

The project employs cloud computing as a solution for distributed parallel processing of large set of data, storage and sharing the end results with users from KenGen. This research proposes a system for geothermal GIS data management using Cloud Computing technologies. The project is aimed at providing alternative options to serving GIS applications over the web. In comparison to costly servers, interoperability, extensibility and performance, cloud technologies have been proven in recent years to meet and in some cases surpass the abilities of traditional servers to produce effective and robust web-based spatial applications.

A prototype system hosted on Amazon cloud servers was created using GeoServer and its potential impact to KenGen was evaluated. The results show that cloud GIS is a worthwhile venture especially for large organizations which spend a lot of money on regular GIS software and hardware updates. The study encourages adoption of the technology with due caution on common pitfalls.

Towards a healthy rural settlement, Electrification model based on Geo-Information in Rwanda (58)
Bernard Hakizimana, Ministry of Local Government, RW, Daniel Ntawumenya, EWSA-EARP, RW

Rwanda being one of the fast growing African economies has set human settlement as a one of the pillars for its development agenda and this being supported by an ICT enabled society as it is formulated in the Vision 2020 and EDPRS 2.
With electrification rate at 16% and a plan to be electrified at 70% in 2017, there is a need to fast track electrification process especially in rural settlement out of the planned electric grid using geo-information technologies.
This paper describes a GIS based model developed to facilitate electrification planning for rural settlements out of the planned electric grid. The model uses demographic data, existing and planned electric grid and settlement patterns data. The criterion to select a potential suitable settlement out of grid in the target region for Photo Voltaic centralized system is analyzed and the alternative sources of energy are the Distribution of lanterns. Data collection involved the GPS receivers on field, Digitalization and online web mapping application using Google forms, spreadsheets and fusion tables, the workflow chart describes the process for the analysis and using the ArcGIS model builder, the electrification priorities are displayed on the maps for the distribution plan based on the location and set parameters.
Results show the percentage of the territory out of the planned grid, a number of grouped settlements suitable for PV central systems while the rest is suitable for the lanterns distribution. The system set analysis scenarios to an informed decision making in the priorities for electrification

The Use of GIS Technologies in Analyzing Challenges and Opportunities for the Management of Urban Green Spaces in Kigali City, Rwanda (92)
Gaspard Rwanyiziri, Centre for Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing/National University of Rwanda, RW, Marie Claire Mukanyandwi, Regina Pacis Secondary School, RW

This study was assessing the challenges and opportunities for managing Green Spaces (GS) of the Urban Part of Kigali City (UPKC). To find out the GS classes and their threats, the land use classes were identified using GIS technologies. Its output was completed by the field visit, questionnaire survey, informal interviews and desk review of the existing environmental and biodiversity policies and laws.
The land use assessment has shown that the built up areas is the most predominant and occupies 74.3%, while the green spaces occupy only 25.3% of the total areas of Urban Part of Kigali City (UPKC). Among the GS classes identified in UPKC, wetlands occupy about 62.6% of the total area of the GS, forests 25%, gardens that are combination of the road side trees, the roundabouts, and playgrounds occupy 12.4% of the total area of GS while the seasonal and perennial crops areas are not significant in the city. In addition, results have shown that GS play different roles in the city among others, the beautification of the city, the air purification and refreshment, waste water treatment, heat reduction, mind refreshment; act as habitat, food and corridors for a good number of animal, etc.
Even though there is no specific law or policy to the urban GS management and protection, the Government of Rwanda (GoR) has put in place a good number of opportunities that take them into consideration. Those include, (1) the governmental policies such as Environmental Policy, Biodiversity Policy, and Forest Policy; (2) the laws such as Organic Environmental Law and, (3) the plans such the master plans for the three districts that make Kigali City. Despite these opportunities, the management of GS in Kigali City is still facing some challenges that the Kigali City authorities are still trying to address. Those include the lack of policies on GS management, low level of awareness on GS management among local people, and the demographic pressure particularly caused by the rural migration that has led to inappropriate human settlement in some areas of the city, wastes management and pollution.

Parallel Session 6.1 (Conf Room 2)
Enabling Government

Simplifying Land Transactions - It can be done (276)
Helge Onsrud, Norwegian Mapping Authority, NO

Starting from January 2012, the Government of Armenia has implemented a big reform to their cadastre. During a period of less than a year, the organization has been changed, cadastral surveying has been privatized and the mandatory use of notaries for land transactions has been abolished. 47 local “front” offices have been maintained to service clients, whilst registration has been centralized to 11 offices at different locations than the front offices. Thus clients can no more meet with the staff making the entries to the cadastre, and a major option for corruption has been removed.

The reform has been facilitated by a new cadastre IT system, making it possible to move data between front offices and registration offices. Front offices receive applications, which are scanned and electronically transferred to the central registration office for checking, approval and registration. At the end of the process, various certificates will returned to the client by email or printed for pick at the front offices linking up to the central database.

The new cadastre IT system is based entirely on Service Oriented Architecture and Open Source Software. A contract with the developers were signed in April 2011, and the components of the system being critical for the reform, came into operation from 2 January 2012. The contract amount for system development, testing and implementation was exactly 1 million USD. The system was largely developed by an Armenian company. Using a local company was crucial for success.

It has been demonstrated that with political will, big cadastral reforms for the benefit of the citizens can be made quickly. Reforming the organization and procedures has been closely linked with the design and implementation of a new IT cadastre system. It has been demonstrated that applying Service Oriented Architecture and Open Source Software, modern cadastral IT systems can be made more rapidly and at much lower costs than experienced before.

Development of the IT system was funded by the Government of Norway. Norway has a grant program for former socialist states in Europe. Funds were channeled via the Norwegian Mapping (and Cadastre) Authority, which as well provided technical assistance to the preparation of specifications, to procurement and to quality control of deliveries. The Norwegian Mapping Authority is interested in expanding its activities to Africa.

Innovative Government SDI Service-TGOS MAP API (89)
Jeremy Shen, Chinese Taipei

Along with ICT advancement, the cloud computing has become the mainstream technology of e-government services. The government proposed a Cloud Computing Application and Industry Development Program in 2012 and has been establishing 10 cloud computing platforms for providing various government services. Among them, TGOS (Geospatial One-Stop) Cloud is a platform under the NGIS umbrella for collecting various types of maps or map layers, including attribute data, developed by government sectors and then providing those maps data to the end-users for multi-purpose applications through TGOS MAP API.

Has been upgrading to the cloud environment, TGOS is a one-stop web portal of inquiry about and access to the national GIS with complete metadata and service catalogue. In addition, TGOS will incorporate Open Geospatial data to better supply of geospatial data. On this basis, the development of TGOS MAP API aims to increase the efficiency of providing geospatial information based on a sharing mechanism, decrease cost of processing data/map incurred to users and secure extensibility of TGOS services.

The TGOS MAP API which is still under developing for different applications and devices, will not only enable the maps data sharing among government agencies for disaster prevention and rescue, urban development, land utilization and monitoring etc., but also encourage industries to invest in value-added applications to create a win-win situation among governments, industries and citizens.

This paper introduces the architecture and fuctions of TGOS MAP API, including its maps, map layers, geospatial information and practical applications.

Applying GIS toward Forest Sector Reform in Central Africa (82)
Duclaire Mbouna, Roger Mambeta and Pascal Douard, World Resources Institute (Presented in French)

Central Africa is home to the second largest area of contiguous moist tropical forest in the world – much of which is allocated to mining and logging interests. Ten years ago, very little forest information in Central Africa was publicly available or of sufficient quality for effective decision-making, leading to many undesirable effects on the management of forest resources. Through the Interactive Forest Atlas initiative, WRI has partnered closely with Ministries of Forests in six countries across Central Africa to use a combination of GIS, remote-sensing and field-based technologies to vastly improve the quality of, and access to, information on protected areas, logging and mining permits, community forests and other land use allocations. Today, while challenges remain, regular access to high-quality forest information has resulted in reduced illegal logging, reconciliation of over-lapping land claims, more effective land-use planning, better support for resource rights of local populations and overall improved forest governance.

Le Plan National de Géomatique du Sénégal (197)
Paul Jolicoeur, Ressources naturelles Canada, CA, Khassoum Wone, Agence de Développement de l'Informatique de l'État, SN

Le Plan National de Géomatique(PNG) du Sénégal,un outil pour une meilleure gouvernance du pays. Dans le cadre de la collaboration entre le Canada et le Sénégal, une entente a été signée pour la mise en place d'un projet d'appui canadien à l'élaboration et la mise en place du Plan National de Géomatique du Sénégal. Ce projet qui a débuté en 2009 et se poursuivra jusqu'en 2015 regroupe six champs d'activité où l'expertise canadienne et sénégalaise est sollicitée. Pour assurer la réalisation effective du PNG, le Sénégal a mis en place le Groupe de Concertation et de Coordination en Géomatique (GICC). Celui-ci en collaboration avec Ressources Naturelles Canada a élaboré le Plan de mise en oeuvre et assure son suivi.Les six champs d'activités sont la formation en géométrique, la communication sur le projet, le renforcement du système sénégalais de référence spatial, le développement d'un géo-répertoire, le développement d'une base de données géospatiale prioritaire accessible via le web et dernièrement la mise en place de SIG dans des domaines prioritaires pour démontrer les bienfaits de la géométrique.

Parallel Session 6.2 (Conf Room 3)
Institutional and Economic

SDI products, business models and economic spin-off (51)
C.J. (Kees) de Zeeuw, Kadaster International, NL

How do our investments in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) result in social and economical benefits to those involved? A highly relevant question in times where resources should be used in an optimal manner. In this paper three different levels in the value chain of our work are discussed. How to use new and existing tooling optimally in our work, how to organise it best within our own institutional and organisational settings and how to create economic spin-off from our geospatial information management for both providers and users. Therefore, three important aspects are considered in this paper:
• The economic impact of using tools and products (e.g. standards, systems and software);
• Business models suitable to cadastral, land registry and national mapping agencies world wide;
• The broader economic spin-off of an SDI.

The geospatial sector is developing data, standards, technologies and infrastructures as the basis for good land and water management practices. Such an SDI is in addition to an e-government and a spatially enabled society, the basis for good and transparent governance leading to sustainable development. Examples of products are given in this paper, which often are region and country specific. These are examples on the acquisition of data, the management of data and the distribution of data. Low cost data acquisition can be valuable in one country, while 3D or even 5D system development might be of added value in other countries. Likewise, laser altimetry or the use of UVA’s might be a solution in one situation, while for example the setting op of a point cadastre system, based on open source data, might be a solution in another situation. The investment and return of investment on the tooling is an important issue to be well considered while setting up an SDI.

Once the tooling is in place, it should be decided how to implement and organize the a user oriented use of an SDI at a national or regional level. Should SDI be considered a public good, or do cost recovery or even commercial business models prevail? What is the impact of economic crisis or a booming economy on these different models?

Finally, an SDI can lead to the creation of local or national economic spin-off. The impact of the development of our land administration systems should always be seen in a balanced manner with people, profit and planet issues. Also the mixture of societal, public and private gains should be considered an important aspect of the subject.

Solving the information lock: barriers to information sharing and a stepwise solution to overcome it (122)
Stefan Kollarits, PRISMA solutions, AT, Manfred Schrenk, CEIT Alanova, AT

The problem is known widely and typical for all multi-institutional settings. A lack of information sharing and willingness to share existing information is widely observed. Usually there are two reasons for that, high costs for data generation or awareness of insufficient data quality. But in many cases also the "information is power". In many cases this leads to redundant data generation and high additional efforts.
Oman may serve as a typical example, where several attempts to establish a national GIS centre have taken place. In the 1990s GIS was well established in several key ministries, but no common process of sharing information was created. A study in 2004-2006 (NGISA) defined the technical, organisational and institutional framework for a National GIS centre. The implementation failed because no agreement between the major GIS stakeholders could be reached, as to which institution should actually act as the national GIS centre.
From the point of view of spatial planning the lack of harmonised and quality secured data was identified as a major obstacle to efficient spatial planning. For this reason two projects were started in 2010/2011:
- Basemapping, for creating high quality orthoimagery of the entire country and most relevant vector data
- National spatial strategy (ONSS), aiming at at a long-term strategy for spatial development in Oman on national and regional levels.
Within ONSS a huge effort of collecting data from all relevant GIS stakeholders and integrating them into a common geodatabase was carried out in 2012-2013. In parallel an initiative was started to involve the stakeholders in a continuous process of discussion and collaboration. Within a series of workshops a common GIS vision was defined, and states that „Geo-spatial information for all planning purposes on all levels of public sector is available and accessible“. But also the vision for building a NSDI on top of ONSS was defined, as „Geo-spatial information is pervasive in geo-spatially enabled government“. Major outputs of this continuous discussion process are a common data model, role model and process models.
Concerning the continuous update of information the data creation processes of each institution were modelled and potential linkages of processes between stakeholders identified. On an organisational level a number of necessary future roles and related responsibilities was identified and mapped to the existing institutions. It must be noted that each institution can play several roles at the same time, depending on the context.
National GIS Coordination (data coordinator) aims at policy
- defines rules
- defines standards
- defines data models
Data integrator (data hub) aims at data quality
- Fusions data
- carries out quality management
- provides services
Data Provider aims at data generation and maintenance
- creates/updates/provides data
- documents data
Data consumer, aims at using data for direct benefits
- Uses data and/or related services (e.g. map services)
The importance of the data integrator can be underlined by defining his role as a “data hub”. In a final implementation scenario the sum of all data integrated in a harmonised way by all data integrators is the complete information infrastructure backbone of Oman SDI.
Basic datasets, which are identified to be of significant common interests for most stakeholders (“Common Base Data”), will be exchanged between the stakeholders with priority. Concerning continuous information exchange it was acknowledged that the level of technical capacities differed widely between stakeholders, thus no single technical solutions was feasible. For this reason four different levels of collaboration of data providers were defined, to account for differences in technical capacities. Each authority is free to choose its appropriate level and related collaboration role on a development path towards a national Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI).
All levels of collaboration, from Level 1 (data are provided “as is”, without any adaptations) to Level 4 (data are provided adapted to a common harmonised standard and produced in deployed (eGovernment) applications) are supporting a common nation-wide information infrastructure. For all these levels a clear set of processes for data management processes are devised and can easily be followed to reach this common information base as goal.
The presentation finally summarises the current status of implementation of the concepts defined above. An assessment of the implementation procedure and the related status will be discussed with practical examples, based on which a set of recommendations and potential points of failure are presented.

The Economics of Open Geospatial Data - There's no such thing as a free lunch (280)
Andrew Coote, ConsultingWhere, GB

The rationale for creating an SDI is often based on the public good or alternatively good governance argument.

A public good is a term usually defined by economists as a product (or service) that one individual can consume without reducing its availability to another individual and from which no one is excluded. A public good is also "non-rivalrous" and "non-excludable". National defence, public parks and basic television and radio broadcasts could all be considered public goods but SDI doesn’t really fit these criteria.

The good governance argument is a wider concept, not subject to a strict economic definition, and as such is probably more useful in this context. It supposes that SDI is one of the functions that Governments’ provide as part of meeting their core responsibility to the country. If geospatial data is being collected for the core functions of Government, such as defence, planning, foreign affairs and land registration, then the economic argument is that the marginal cost of making it available to citizens is marginal and in the Internet world, close to zero. Furthermore, citizens have already paid for it through taxation.

The benefit to end users, is widely argued to far outweigh the costs of production, maintenance and dissemination. This is the driver for many of the open data (free at the point of access) policies being implemented around the world.

The problem for National Mapping and Cadastral Agencies (NMCAs)is the lack of certainty of continued funding and that once their controllable source of finance (data sales) is removed, they lose control of their own destiny. So whilst there is a consensus amongst economists that an open data policy is a national benefit, it may work against the principle producer.

What are the options open to the producers? The presenter will lay out what he believes are the few available options.

Africa's problems begone!: An Appreciative GIS concept to celebrate and expand what is working well (84)
Paddington Hodza, Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center, US

Experts agree that GIS are social constructions that mirror the worldview, biases and needs mainly of Western societies. This view has not discouraged extensive GIS use in many other regions of the world. In Africa, most GIS projects are conducted in the domain of problem-solving which places emphasis on what is broken, wrong or missing. These projects do not necessarily reveal much about what is working well across the continent. This paper asks: Have current GIS helped propagate the widely held but mistaken view that Africa is fraught with problems? And have GIS played a role in marginalizing Africa and its people? In addressing these questions, I argue that Africa and other regions that are socialized into viewing themselves as problematic would benefit more from new forms of GIS. Drawing on ideas from various areas including participatory GIS (PGIS), positive psychology, appreciative inquiry, positive deviance and asset-based community development (ABCD), I suggest an innovative, uplifting and hope-inspiring form of GIS called Appreciative GIS (AGIS). The key premise of AGIS is that every region, country or community, no matter how disadvantaged, has some assets, strengths and potentials that it can use to create a better and sustainable future for its people. I lay down the principles that guide AGIS and discuss how this approach and philosophy for creating positive change can be used effectively to help appreciate, expand and successfully exploit the best in Africa and its people. I conclude that AGIS has enormous potential to inspire self-reliant development in many sectors of Africa.

Improving sustainability of transport infrastructures through geo-enabling of conventional road management systems (226)
Eyob T. Belay, Tsegay Terefe, Prime Consultants PLC and Yetmgeta Asrat, Ethiopian Roads Authority, ET

In view of fundamental impact of transport infrastructure on economic development, the Government of Ethiopia has introduced and is being implemented a multi-phased Road Sector Development Program (RSDP) that is aimed at doubling of the total length of highway and respective national coverage in less than two decades. The agency has well documented the impact in terms of increased accessibility and mobility, improved road quality, and reduced vehicle operating cost that contributes to poverty alleviation.
Alongside with such massive infrastructure expansion is maintenance and rehabilitation activities that guarantee sustainability and usability of the asset through application of regular monitoring schemes and appropriate fixes. Such monitoring tasks are normally relying on availability of comprehensive information- commonly organized in the form of asset management system- that describes actual state of the asset and possible interventions. Conventionally these systems are composed of tools and functionalities to collect, organize, manipulate and present narrative information about the road and related assets. However, commonly they fail to efficiently provide the required complete knowledge for decision making due to the missing geographic information.
A web based and GIS enabled national road information management system is developed by Prime Consultants to enable the federal, regional and municipal road authorities effectively administer their respective road assets in favor of delivering convenient service to the ultimate users. The system is composed of state of the art web based GIS tools that are well integrated with those conventional tools in road management systems (RMS& PMS) for administration of operational assets and ongoing projects respectively.
The GIS is designed to effectively address the long-standing geographic data handling related needs in the authorities through its fairly easy to use tools with the aim of making the system more valuable, sustainable and friendly. The system provides wide range of tools and functionalities spanning from geodata entry to graphical reports so that users effectively benefit from the power of GIS with little or no prior knowledge. Advanced data models are implemented to facilitate those geospatial data analysis activities that are commonly applied in linear asset management tasks like LRS, proximity and routing analysis.
Regular stakeholder engagement throughout the development process and further awareness creation and capacity building programs helped the system to be quickly accepted and smoothly implemented in the respective agencies. The system is designed to accommodate wide spectrum of user needs in the sector that ranges from federal through local administrations and operationally spanning from decision makers to project supervisors. Further, the system provides valuable information to partner organizations like consultants, contractors, NGOs and donor agencies through its unrestricted and public contents.

Parallel Session 6.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)
Land Use & Land Cover

Land-Cover Mapping Using Landsat For Sustainable Green House Gas (Ghg) Inventory Development (142)
Benson Kenduiywo, Eunice Nduati and Charles Mundia, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Department of Geomatic Engineering and Geospatial Information Systems, KE, Tesfaye Korme, Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development, KE

Information on land-cover is important for verification of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). LULUCF is significant in assessing anthropogenic Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. This study aimed at developing a simple and computationally efficient yet accurate methodology for national land-cover mapping. The longstanding Landsat data freely available with a renewed and sustainable future archive after the launch of Landsat 8 was used. Data of two epochs namely 2000 and 2010 were selected. A chain classification approach using maximum likelihood classification (MLC) coupled with decision tree was used. Chain classification approach was significant in classifying images of different seasons given that in national land-cover projects it is rare to obtain images of the same date. Six classes recommended by IPCC were adopted. The developed approach attained an accuracy of 86% with a kappa coefficient of 0.8. The study concluded the freely available Landsat data, computational efficiency of MLC and decision tree can be tapped for sustainable land-cover mapping for GHG. This method is replicable and therefore can be used to produce complete and comparable national land-cover products.

A Remote Sensing-based approach to Evaluation of Trends and Impacts of Land Surface changes in the Mara Ecosystem (148)
Eunice Nduati, Charles Mundia, Moses Ngigi and Benson Kipkemboi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, KE

The earth’s land surface is a key component of the earth’s climate system. Terrestrial plants, animals and human beings rely on the land surface for sustenance and existence. As such, the conditions prevailing on the land surface and its properties are essential to terrestrial life. Land cover is a major component of the land surface and changes to it constitute a form of land surface change. Modification, conversion and maintenance of land cover are all forms of anthropogenic interactions with the environment that result in a variety of vital changes to land cover and consequently the land surface, that either positively or negatively feedback to the environment and climate. These feedbacks, in turn influence the land surface state and its properties as well as the response and adaptations by plants, animals and human beings. The identification and monitoring of these Land Use/ Land Cover Changes (LULCC) is therefore important since changes in land cover, occasioned more often than not by anthropogenic land use, alter land surface-atmosphere interactions upon which ecosystem services rely thus resulting in climate change and variation.
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a property of the land surface and refers to the temperature of the interface between the earth’s land surface and the atmosphere. It is therefore an important variable in land surface-atmosphere interactions and a climate change indicator which varies spatially and temporally as a function of other land surface properties and components such as vegetation cover, surface moisture, soil types and topography as well as atmospheric conditions primarily characterized by meteorological measures. Vegetation cover is a major constituent of land cover that is subject to changes occasioned by natural events such as precipitation and impacted by activities on the land surface such as foraging and clearing. The ability to monitor and characterize changes in Land Surface Temperature and vegetation cover allows for investigation of causes and enhances the ability to anticipate changes and put in place adaptation measures. Remote Sensing provides us with the ability to monitor changes and establish trends and interrelationships between these and other land surface components and properties, thereby providing information on the state of the environment and climate change and variation.
This study uses a remote sensing approach in one of the most ecologically rich and diverse ecosystems to investigate the Land Cover Changes and in particular vegetation change and Land Surface Temperature (LST) changes as indicators of land surface change. Further, the study evaluates the relationship between Land Surface Temperature and vegetation cover in the region using NDVI as a parameter to characterize and assess vegetation. The study area is in the Mara ecosystem located in South Western Kenya. LANDSAT satellite images for 1985, 1995, 2003 and 2010 are used to derive NDVI, LST and Land Use/ Land Cover maps. We found that human related Land Use/ Land Cover Change (LULCC) in the form of conversion of land for cultivation purposes has been and is taking place around the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR). We also found that a negative correlation exists between LST and NDVI thus indicating that with decrease in vegetation cover, there is increase in Land Surface Temperature (LST) in the region.

Geospatial Analysis of Changes in Vegetation Cover in Nigeria Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique (236)
Olutoyin Fashae and Adeyemi Olusola, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NG, Oluwatola Adedeji, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun, NG

Nigeria is richly endowed with abundant forest resources. Vegetation cover in Nigeria has been discovered to be on the decrease and there is a dire need for proper monitoring using remote sensing and GIS technology since it has proven to be effective in examining spatio-temporal dynamics of vegetation cover. Unlike most studies that are basically concerned with assessing the vegetal health and cover extent of pocketed forest areas within the country, the primary goal of this study is to utilize remotely sensed data of AVHRR time series imagery for 1981-2010 to monitor vegetation cover in Nigeria using Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which has been widely accepted as an effective means of estimating changes in vegetation cover.

The results showed that dense vegetal areas decreased from 300,959.48km2 in 1981 to 46,662.30km2 as at 2010, a loss of about 73%, low vegetal areas showed increased in spread from 35,305.33km2 in 1981 to 364,533.77km2 in 2010 an increase of about 82%. Cellular Automata and Markov Chain (CA_Markov), a projection of the areal vegetal extent was examined up to 2020, and it was predicted that areas with low vegetation will increased in spread to 422,429km2, while dense vegetal areas will reduced to 24,812km2. This explains the observed spread in low vegetation moving gradually southerly and systematically changing forested areas especially the northern guinea forest and the southern guinea forest into savannah lands. NDVI and rainfall was found to be correlated (r = 0.6) confirming the influence of rainfall on vegetation growth and that, temporal variation in NDVI could be linked to rainfall.

Conclusively, the study revealed the contribution of satellite remote sensing to long term observation of the intra and inters annual variability of vegetation in Nigeria. Time series remotely sensed data using Geographic Information System (GIS) has proven to be effective and accurately used to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of the nature of vegetation cover in Nigeria. The result of this study would enable policy makers to be aware of past and present state of the health of vegetation cover in Nigeria and to develop a sustainable means of combating ecological hazard.

Analysis Of Land Surface Temperature Change In Ibadan Region, Nigeria Using Landsat Tm (246)
Olutoyin Fashae, Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NG, Efosa Adagbasa, Regional centre for training in aerospace surveys, NG

Temperatures are gradually increasing globally due to a changing climate. This temperature difference is attributed to the growing presence of the built environment taking up green places. Rapid urbanization is having significant influence on different aspects of the quality of life thereby altering the biophysical environment. Ibadan, a rapidly developing city is one out of many cities in Nigeria that is experiencing an increase in population especially at the urban area. This study examines the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery for analysing Land Surface Temperature (LST) differences in urban areas and to compare the relationships amongst the land cover use types of Ibadan between 1984 and 2002.This is to confirm urban heat island phenomenon that is synonymous with urbanization.
Landsat TM satellite imagery of 1984 and 2002 of Ibadan was used to generate the Land use/ land cover (LULC) using Idrisi selvas software. Surface emissivity maps were obtained from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Thresholds Method NDVI and landcover information. The surface emissivity based on NDVI classes was used to retrieve the final LST. Emissivity correction was used to classify surface emissivity for the specified land covers.
The results showed an increase of urban area within the period from 341.72 km2 in 1984 to 529.4 km2 in 2002 with an average increase in LST from 27oC to 38oC. A further survey using a north-south and west-east transect revealed that, highly urbanised areas located at the center of Ibadan have the highest LST of about 38oC while it dissipates to about 22 oC at the surburbs that is less built up. Also, there is a significant relationship between the health condition of vegetation (NDVI) and temperature(r =0.9) an. This revealed that, as vegetation condition decreases, temperature increases.

The study confirms the potential application of remote sensing and GIS for detecting urban growth as well as relates growth impact to land surface temperature to confirm Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in the Ibadan region. Therefore, appropriate strategies are necessary for the sustainable management of the urban area.

Detecting Land Use And Land Cover Change And Its Effects On Stream Flow Patterns Through GIS, Remote Sensing And Community Consultation In Amin Watershed, Amhara Region, Ethiopia (260)
Tarik Assaye, ET

This study analyzed the land use and land cover changes and its effects on stream flow pattern through GIS & Remote Sensing techniques and community consultation in small watershed, Amin watershed, in the northwestern part of Ethiopian highlands. The Landsat TM image (1986) and ETM+ images (2001 and 2009) were the main input data to map the land use and land cover of the study area and to quantify the changes during the study periods(1986-2009) through GIS & Remote sensing. To assess the perception of the local peoples about the land use and land cover changes and effects on stream flow pattern the socio-economic data were generated by using household survey and key-informant interviews. To distinguish the effect of land use and land cover dynamics in stream flow pattern the variability and trend of the stream flow data in relation to rainfall were assessed. The result of GIS & Remote sensing assessment indicated that the major changes has been the reduction of grazing land and riverine forest and expansion of area under cultivated land, town and forest. The local peoples perceived that the grazing land, cultivated land and riverine forest declined through time but rural settlement and eucalyptus plantation expand in the area. The statistical result of hydrological data indicated that the stream flow pattern show slight change during the study periods. For the wet seasons the stream flow generated from the surface runoff and follows the trend of rainfall. On the other hand the change of the dry season flow is partly due to land use land cover change. The local peoples reported that the dry season flow decline dramatically but the wet season flows does not change as such. They believe deforestation, climate change and excessive use of irrigation are the causes for the decline of water in the stream. Generally GIS and RS techniques are helpful tools to detect and analyze the land use and land cover dynamics. The information which is providing from the community is important to plan for a sustainable land use and land management.

Parallel Session 6.4 (Caucus Room 11)
Earth Observation for Forestry and Agriculture (Agricab)
See the workshop description.

Building national capacity on crop modeling and crop yield forecasting in Africa through the AGRICAB project (75)
Hendrik Boogaard, Alterra Wageningen UR, NL, Bamba Diop, CSE, SN, Charles Situma, DRSRS, KE, Vincent Imala, DRSRS, KE, Patricio Domingos, INAM, MZ, Raymond Van der Wijngaart, Steven Hoek and Kees Van Diepen , Alterra Wageningen UR, NL, Carolien Tote, VITO, BE

Monitoring crop production of the current growing season is an important aspect of the analysis of the national food security situation in Africa. Within AGRICAB (a research project funded by the EC 7th Framework Programme) several use cases are selected to build capacity across Africa on the monitoring of crop production in terms of areas and yields using earth observation (EO) data and predictive models. In this paper we focus on the yield term. Most early warning systems for Africa, operated by (inter)national organizations, rely on rainfall data, drought indices (e.g. WSI) and remote sensing based vegetation indices like NDVI. The information is used for qualitative monitoring and forecasting of yield through regression analysis. In addition, several scientific studies have been carried out to improve monitoring capabilities by introducing process-based crop growth models.
Despite these studies no operational service is present in Africa combining the advantages of process-based crop growth models and available EO-data sets to monitor and forecast rain fed arable crops. These models estimate agricultural production as a function of weather and soil conditions as well as crop management. As such they can deliver useful indicators for monitoring and as explanatory variables in a statistical crop yield forecast procedure. Compared to commonly used satellite based vegetation indices proper calibrated crop models have some advantages such as a crop specific estimation of crop development and growth, a faster response to alarming weather conditions and a more detailed indication of phenological stages which enables analysis of weather conditions around critical crop stages. Moreover the deterministic nature of these models make them very useful in studies on land and water management scenarios, adaptation to climate change and the exploration of the reasons behind a yield gap.
African partners are exposed to current state-of-the-art concepts and methods for what concerns crop modelling and crop yield forecasting. Use case specific methods and databases are being defined and prepared (discover and experience) and adapted to local conditions. It includes tasks like data acquisition, processing and hands-on training on crop models, operational crop monitoring and crop yield forecasting services and the use of specific software tools. One example is a regional implementation of a process based crop growth model WOFOST to monitor growing conditions of maize and wheat in Kenya. A key activity in all three use case countries is the introduction of a software tool to critically assess historical yields, identify possible trends and set-up of statistical models (single or multiple regression) to forecast yields. For Mozambique a database on daily rainfall is designed and filled to support quality checking and validation of satellite based rainfall products. Apart from the national AGRICAB project partners other relevant stakeholder such as the Ministry of Agriculture, universities and statistical departments are actively involved to discuss the present national food security information infrastructure and to identify realistic and promising issues that are missing or need improvement.

Testing the application of geo-referenced frames for crop statistics in Africa within the AGRICAB project (101)
Tomaso Ceccarelli, David Remotti, Consorzio ITA, IT, Bamba Diop, Centre de Suivi Ecologique, SN, Charles Situma, Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing, KE, Michele Downie and Laura Monaci, Consorzio ITA, IT

As far as the agricultural statistical component is concerned, AGRICAB represents an extremely interesting test bed for the application of geo-referenced frames in Africa. Agricultural statistics and namely annual crop production statistics provide official figures of crop yields and area as well as overall production. Unfortunately nowadays, most African countries do not have in place agricultural statistics systems generating reliable information to be used for food security, etc. The international community has taken the initiative to address this gap by promoting the “Global Strategy for Improving Agricultural and Rural Statistics”, where Africa is regarded as a priority. In this perspective EO is indicated as playing a potentially important role, although a number of aspects are still to be tested and evaluated on technical, financial, organization grounds. However in Africa, there is little experience in implementing geo-referenced sampling frames, which are indispensable for introducing remote sensing, in addition to ground observations, in the estimation of crop area statistics.
AGRICAB, even if within its specific R&D perspective which limits the test to a relative small area (i.e. a District or equivalent administrative unit) and to one year, is expected to provide a valuable contribution in this respect. Indeed, the application of EO in the generation of crop area statistics will be tested in different environments, and applying different methodological approaches as well as technological solutions. The usefulness of EO will be evaluated at different stages in the process: from the characterization/stratification of the sampling frame through visual interpretation of the images, to the planning and actual realization of a ground survey and finally to the use of crop specific classifications for improving the precision of the survey estimates.
In order to correctly introduce the use of satellite images in the “use case” countries (Senegal, Kenya, Mozambique), other experiences, in the EU and in Africa, were evaluated as possible references. Most important, a “diagnostic” analysis of the present systems was taken as a basis for discussing and designing possible improvements with all the relevant stakeholders. In the agricultural statistics component thus, the challenge has been to carry-out small although meaningful tests in the application of EO, to be subsequently evaluated and possibly extended over larger areas in the countries, for improving on the quality of crop production statistics.
In Senegal, two different approaches based on geo-referenced sampling frames are implemented in the 2013 crop season with the AGRICAB partner (Centre Suivi Ecologique) and the statistical division of the Ministry of Agriculture (DAPSA): the first is a point-frame, which is the method presently implemented in the EU for land cover statistics (project LUCAS). The second relies on the sample of farm households selected at present (based on a list) and on the ground measure of each field and crop areas by means of GPS. A “cultivated area” map is subsequently used for the statistical expansion of the area estimates based on ground observations. In Mozambique, a similar approach will be implemented in the 2014 growing season, together with the AGRICAB partner (Universidade Eduardo Mondlane) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG). In Kenya, together with the AGRICAB partner (DRSRS) and the Ministry of Agriculture, three approaches are being tested. The specific aim is to improve the quality of estimates introducing robust statistical procedures. The first approach is an evolution of the system presently in use (based on the interpretation of aerial photographs), introducing a more rigorous sampling frame as well as (limited) ground observations for minimizing sources of bias. A second approach consists of the integration of data collected by means of two remote sensing platforms (satellite and airborne), but no ground data. And finally the “point” frame is also tested (as for Senegal and Mozambique). The results of the different approaches tested in Senegal and Kenya are discussed and evaluated on technical as well as on more general grounds (organization, cost-benefit, etc.). The role of EO data is also evaluated in terms of its efficiency comparing estimates with and without the contribution of satellite data.

Early warning analysis for crop and pastureland monitoring in Senegal: a contribution to food security (100)
Mouhamadou Bamba Diop, Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE), SN, Abdoul Aziz Diouf, Centre de Suivi Ecologique, SN, Gayane Faye, Centre de Suivi Ecologique, SN, Carolien Tote and Antoine Royer, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), BE, El Hadji Mamadou Ngom, Direction de l’Analyse, de la Prévision et des Statistiques Agricoles (DAPSA), SN

Agriculture is a key economic sector in Africa with more than 60% of its population depending upon it. FAO estimates that nearly 265 Million people are currently under nourished in Sub-Saharan Africa, representing more than 25% of its total population. Good management of agricultural resources, in order to ensure stable food supply, is imperative to the livelihoods of millions of people and is key for development, but requires good information to base decisions on. Remote sensing can contribute significantly to these information needs and for this reason more and more institutes and agencies integrate this technology into their daily work. Among the GMFS (Global Monitoring For Food Security) and AGRICAB project (FP7- project), the main focus is to link European and African research capacity in the use of remote sensing for agriculture and forestry management In Senegal, rainfall is concentrated between July and August and it’s associated with a strong spatial and temporal variability; also dry spells can affect crops and rangeland production». A large part of the Senegalese population lives in rural areas, and thus depends on early identification and localization of drought affected areas. This presentation focuses on new methodologies for the integration of time series of low spatial-high temporal resolution SPOT-Vegetation derived vegetation indicators in the near-real time (early warning) monitoring of crop status over Senegal, including spatio-temporal cluster analysis, start of season anomalies detection and quantitative yield forecasting using time series similarity analysis. The introduction of new time series analysis software called SPIRITS [1] is facilitating the operational tasks of the ‘Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE)’, with focus on time efficiency, reliability and quality of the output early warning products. SPIRITS includes functions to automate the data processing chain in an operational framework. The aim of this work is to improve the regularly published crop monitoring bulletins and to provide more comprehensive, and timely information to the end-users and policy makers.
[1] H. Eerens, D. Haesen, C. Tote, B. Lieven, F. Rembold, and F. Urbano, “SPIRITS?: An image processing software for crop an vegetation monitoring,” Environmental Modelling & Software.

Influence of location and season on drought related livestock mortality assessment from SPOT NDVI data in Marsabit District, Northern Kenya (137)
Marie Lang, University of Liege (Ulg), BE, Bakary Djaby, University of Liege (Ulg), BE, Mude Andrew, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), KE, Isabelle Piccard, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), BE, Bernard Tychon, University of Liege (Ulg), BE

In arid and semi-arid lands, poor households rely mostly on livestock as a source of livelihood. In these regions, drought is the predominant cause of livestock mortality and losses due to drought can be particularly high during drier seasons, making rural populations highly vulnerable to extreme weather events. This situation shows the importance of developing efficient methods to assess forage availability and livestock mortality in arid regions.

Our work is aimed to design an index for assessing drought related livestock mortality from remote sensing data. More particularly, in this study, we investigated the influence of geographical location and season (Long Rain-Long Dry season, LRLD, from March to September and Short Rain-Short Dry season, SRSD, from October to February) on seasonal livestock mortality and NDVI data from SPOT- VEGETATION, represented by CZNDVI, the cumulated values for the given year of z-scored NDVI in Marsabit District, Northern Kenya. We also studied the impact of these two parameters on simple linear regression performance.

Multiple comparison of mortality means using the two factors highlighted some combinations of locations and seasons that could explain the trend in mortality. Using the indicator of forage availability to predict mortality, we found that the general trend is negative, which is coherent with the reality of the situation. Our findings also showed that, in order to better explain mortality, although the difference in forage availability can be reflected in the season, it is also necessary to take into account the location factor which expresses the differences in production systems. Indeed, we could observe that correlations between mortality and forage availability, for data classified according to the season, are not significant but found some location/season combinations for which it was.

In conclusion, from correlation analysis and simple linear regressions, we can say that season alone does not influence the prediction of drought related livestock mortality but that, combined to location; this parameter can improve the accuracy of the models. In general, we obtained better results for locations situated in the South of our study area. On the other hand, among the location-season combinations that gave good results, we did not observe a dominant season. These differences could be interpreted as a consequence of the local meteorological and vegetation conditions, wetter and greener but more variable in the southern region, as well as the associated system of production and the resistance of animals to drought, that could give a nonlinear response of mortality in drier areas. Field investigation and interviews with the herders should allow us to confirm the validity of this hypothesis. These different expressions of the relation between livestock mortality and forage availability indices offer perspectives for predictive modelling intended to livestock insurance and early warning systems.

Parallel Session 6.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Resource and Waste Management

Enhanced Knowledge Management: Knowledge Centers for Extension Communication and Agriculture Development in Ethiopia (244)
Abebe Shiferaw Dakka, Formerly at ILRI now Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA), ET, Dirk Hoekstra, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), ET

Knowledge management (KM) provides opportunity for organizations to achieve higher efficiency and increased output. With objective of attaining opportunities in KM at district level, Woreda Knowledge Centers (WKC) were established and used in ten districts in Ethiopia from 2005 to 2010. WKC is a telecenter used to gather, share, classify, access, and use knowledge at district (woreda) level. The study
involves questionnaire, group discussion, timeline, SWOT analysis, and KM performance assessment and document review. This chapter presents WKC usefulness, establishment steps, challenges, and opportunities.
In ten districts, of the 500 survey respondents, 79% and 71% agree on an increase in knowledge delivery and availability, respectively. Temporal comparison showed that WKC increased staff capacity to document, access, share, and use knowledge leading to improved extension communication. The study recommends that WKC be established by ministry of agriculture and its partners to enhance KM at district level for agricultural development.

Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) in Biomass Assessment: Case Study:- Kibwezi District (102)
Evans Kipngetich, iMAP International, KE

The adoption and sound use of community-based geographic information technologies, combined with effective Participatory-GIS (PGIS) practice has been proven to have positive impacts on community empowerment and cohesion, innovation and social change. Setting the foundations for safeguarding culturally sensitive information from external misuse and exploitation begins by giving its traditional custodians control over its access and use.
Participatory-GIS (PGIS) advocates the participation of local stakeholders to generate, analyze and communicate spatial information for improved natural resource management (NRM). Current NRM projects in developing countries have increasingly focused on promoting community participation in its life cycle while at the same time ensuring the sustainability of the project outputs. The main principles of PGIS are: community participation, local ownership and sustainability.
Participatory mapping and PGIS, with the community, are also utilized to elicit community’s special knowledge about a range of topics: how they perceive, respond to, and interact with the environment and natural resources, perception of hazards, and what they feel about security, potentials of places and spaces.
This paper highlights our approach of PGIS and how efficient it can be, if properly utilized and more specifically, in biomass assessment. The result of this merging also enhances GIS map outputs that can be easily applied to local resource planning.

Spatial Modeling Of Waste Management Data In Urban Areas, Case Study Of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (187)
Agata Rymkiewicz and Martin Kranert, Universität Stuttgart, DE

A GIS (geographic information systems) based model for waste management data is being developed for urban regions. There is a need of geospatial waste management concepts in large urban areas for better understanding of the complex structure of different stakeholders and the spatial waste genration. On the basis of available geographic and socioeconomic data, a methodology for spatially distributed household waste generation is developed with the aim of waste amount extrapolation for the whole city. For this purpose, different land use and land cover classification methods have been adapted and implemented for the administrative area of the case study Addis Ababa. Different population estimation methods have been applied to project the urban population. Waste sorting analysis data providing the residual waste amount and composition per capita in different housing classes has been included in the spatial model. Additionally, the recyclables amount per capita was determined. The mentioned data is integrated in the GIS model for later exploitation as a decision support tool. Based on that spatial model, the impacts of decentralized waste treatment plants can be estimated and considered in future waste management planning.

Here, the entire approach of the spatial waste management data distribution and their potential use is presented. To do so, firstly the land use and land cover classification methodology had to be developed and applied for the case study of Addis Ababa, which is defined by the administrative borders of the city. Since the residential areas are often heterogeneous, characterized by a number of conditions that are in large part interpretable and may be acquired from aerial photographs, as exemplary different buildings densities, house and lot sizes, age and nature of houses, tenure and the socioeconomic status of their residents, street widths and conditions, yard and open space maintenance, vegetation quantity and quality etc., it is important to differentiate between different residential classes also referred as areas with different housing qualities (Lillesand et al. 2007). The main objective of the classification is to distinguish between different residential classes, as representatives of different socio-economic classes and accordingly of various waste generation sources. In the waste management research and planning differentiation between residential structures characterized by building types is practiced. Residential building types are proxies for the income of their residents and consequently indicators for their socioeconomic status, which again influences the behaviors and goods consumption (Kranert & Cord-Landwehr 2010). A comprehensive classification of the residential areas of the city is the foundation for the determination of the population composition and estimation in each of the residential classes in Addis Ababa. This is the basis for the implementation of spatial scenario analysis of decentralized waste management systems.
Kranert, M., Cord-Landwehr, K. (ed.), (2010). Einführung in die Abfallwirtschaft. 4. Auflage. Berlin.
Lillesand, T. M., Kiefer, R. W., Chipman, J. W., (2007). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Sixth Edition. USA.

GIS based suitable waste disposal site selection. A Case of Woldia Town, Amhara Regional state, Ethiopia (259)
Fisha Semaw, Addis Ababa University, ET

Solid waste management system is the most serious problem that many countries, both developing and developed, are facing. Suitable landfill method is one of the easy and cheap management systems which are always needed for sustainable management of solid waste. However, if not sited and managed properly, it will result in environmental pollution and public health problems. The illegal disposals of wastes were practiced along roads, sewerage systems and along free lands. Therefore, it is necessary to select suitable landfill site for the town that is environmentally sound, socially acceptable and economically feasible. Factors such as geology, soil, slope, land use/ land cover, proximity from roads, distance from settlement, groundwater well and streams/rivers were used for selecting suitable landfill site within the study area. All the factor maps were reclassified and standardized in GIS environment followed by preparation of their suitability map. In addition constrain maps also reclassified and standardized in GIS environment followed by preparation of their suitability map. Finally the intersection of those factors and constrain maps are produced by this suitability modeling technique to generate the final suitable landfill sites in the area. The result shows that there are four suitable candidate sites selected and these sites are again evaluated based on other socio-economic criteria like distance from the center of the town, distance from the nearby settlement and the area coverage. Accordingly, 0.81sq/km (site1), 0.57sq/km (site3), 0.3sq/km (site2) and 0.12sq/km (site) of the total study area is highly, moderately, fairly and less suitable for landfill respectively. These are also evaluated against other criteria like distance from the center of the city and distance from nearby settlements so as to choose the most suitable landfill sites. Landfill site 1, 3, 2 and 4 which are located in the western part of the city are chosen as the most suitable sites, because of the larger area and optimum distance from the nearby settlements and from the center besides their fulfillment of the environmental and socioeconomic factors set before as highly suitable, moderately suitable, fairly suitable and less suitable respectively hence their negative effects on the environment and public heath will be minimum.

Parallel Session 7.1 (Conf Room 2)
Global and Regional Initiatives

The Global Land Component Of The European Union Global Monitoring For Environment And Security (Copernicus-Gmes) Initiative (34)
Michel Massart, European Union - DG ENTR, BE, Etienne Bartholome, European Union - DG JRC, IT

Managing natural resources and biodiversity, observing the state of the oceans, monitoring the composition of the atmosphere: all depend on accurate information delivered in time. The European initiative for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (COPERNICUS-GMES) provides data to help deal with a wide range of issues including climate change. COPERNICUS is considered as the Earth Observation Flagship of the European Union. Its purpose is to deliver information on environment and security.

COPERNICUS services are based on Earth monitoring data, collected from space and in situ measurements. After years of research investment, COPERNICUS is becoming a fully operational service programme. It has great potential for businesses in the services market, which will be able to make use of the data it provides free of charge. Six COPERNICUS services have been defined: Land, Marine, Atmosphere, Emergency, Climate change and Security.

The Global Land component of the Land Service has been built initially to support EU policies at international level and the European commitments under international treaties and conventions, such as the Rio conventions. The Global Land component is also a major contribution of EU to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

The Global Land component started its operational activities in January 2013 with the production in near real time of mid resolution bio-geophysical terrestrial parameters at worldwide levels. The reprocessing of historical data to ensure re-analysis and inter-annual comparisons is also part of the activities, as well as the development of an efficient archiving and cataloguing system, including an easy access data dissemination service.

The Global Land component will provide information for the Agriculture sector with the production of biophysical parameters relevant for crop monitoring and for crop production forecast. It will also support environmental policies in Africa with a specific orientation towards biodiversity, desertification, drought and water monitoring and early warning purposes, and, at the same time, the Earth system modelling with a focus on the land / atmosphere processes, including the related carbon and water fluxes which are highly relevant for the Climate Change policy.

The Global Land component is supported by an Open and Free Data Access Policy allowing a wide use of the data, fostering the development of downstream applications by African partners and thus strengthening the EO application sector. The component will ensure the continued provision of products to activities developed under the EU-Africa partnership: e.g. projects as AMESD (African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development) and MESA (Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa) projects.

The evolution of the component post 2013 will be towards the development of high resolution operational activities on hot spot areas, research examples exist in the field of forestry, biodiversity and national parks management, or water monitoring.

The concept of the COPERNICUS is also currently applied in Africa under the GMES and Africa initiative.

Global Monitoring For Food Security (Gmfs): Ten Years Of Operational Monitoring Of Africa's Agriculture (35)
Sven Gilliams, VITO, BE, Carsten Haub, EFTAS, DE, Bakary Djaby, Ulg, BE, Francesco Holecz, Sarmap, CH, Tomaso Ceccarelli, C-ITA, IT, Eva Haas, GeoVille, AT

Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) provided Earth Observation based services and encouraged partnerships in monitoring agriculture and related environmental processes in Africa.
GMFS was part of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) contribution to the European Union / ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The GMFS partnership started in 2003 and consisted of seven European institutions with different fields of expertise: VITO, C-ITA, EARS, EFTAS, SARMAP, ULg and GeoVille. In addition to the European partners, there were two regional African partners: The Application en Agrométéorologie et Hydrologie Opérationelle (AGRHYMET) Centre in Niger and the Regional Centre for Mapping Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Kenya.
The partnership aimed to establish operational service networks for crop monitoring in support of Food Security Monitoring Systems, to serve policy makers and operational users, by ensuring sustainable integration and application of those solutions into a well-nodded stakeholder’s network in Africa.
The GMFS partnership brought together data and information providers in order to assist stakeholders, in national and international organisations, to better implement their policies towards sustainable development and food security. It contributed to the development and provision of operational service chains and improved access to satellite data.
GMFS users were the driving force behind the implementation of the GMFS activities. At international level GMFS closely worked together with FAO and WFP and at national level close working relations were established with ministries and public authorities in Senegal, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Malawi, Sudan, Mali and Zimbabwe.
GMFS provided multi-scale information on Early Warning, Agricultural Monitoring, and Support to Crop and Food Security Assessment Missions.
GMFS Early Warning were based upon the Crop Yield and Vegetation Monitoring Service (CYVM) and the Soil Moisture Monitoring Service. Focus of these services lied on detecting anomalies of the current growing season as compared to the long term avarege, the 5-10 year average or the past growing season. For the CYVM service this long term averages were based upon MERIS RR and or SPOT-VGT. The GMFS Agricultural Monitoring service type consisted of three components; the Agricultural Mapping Service, the SAR Knowledge Transfer Service and the Support to the Optimisation of National Agricultural Surveys Service. Its goal was the production of up-to-date and accurate high resolution maps of the cultivated or cropped area at national level and the support of national institutes in using these maps in their agricultural surveys. Although these services have already been implemented successfully in Sudan, Kenya and Malawi, one of the main bottle necks for this service type was the availability of high resolution optical imagery during the agricultural season. The CFSAM Support Service provided ad hoc assessment reports in support of the CFSAM. On the request of national governments, FAO/GIEWS and WFP conduct yearly Food Security Assessment Missions for those countries facing widespread and serious food emergencies. GMFS provided supplementary Earth Observation-based information on overall crop growth conditions, plus yield forecasts as per best availability. The purposes of the information provided by GMFS were: (i) to help plan and carry out the CFSAM by identifying priority areas to visit; (ii) to provide a yield estimate for the key crop based on Earth Observation data sources.
Over these past 10 years, the above mentioned services have progressively been transferred to the African users. This transfer of technology has been made possibly by two factors. Firtsly there was the emphasis of the GMFS consortium on training and capacity building. In all service users received training session not only within their country but experts were also invited to Europe for intense on the job training session. Secondly there is the willingness of the African national institutes to invest in Earth Observation by means of training of personell and infrastructure. This willingness of African Decision Makers is greately influenced by the prospect of receiving operationally, high quality data free of charge.
This document will focus on a couple of show cases of the GMFS services, on the lessons learned of 10 years of operational remote sensing based agricultural monitoring in Africa and the future of these services keeping in mind future sensor missions.

Progress in Finalising the “GMES & Africa Action Plan” (GAAP), focusing on Marine and Coastal Areas (159)
Paul Cunningham

The “GMES & Africa” initiative establishes a long term partnership between European and African stakeholders, accordingly to the Lisbon Declaration, to work together on the development and implementation of Earth Observation (EO) applications based on African requirements. The process is implemented in the wide context of the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership, and in particular, implementation of the Space track of the 8th Africa – EU Strategic Partners (Science, Information Society, Space) aiming for sustainable development and incremental scientific cooperation.

GMES & Africa strengthens Africa’s capacity and ownership of EO activities and acknowledges the importance of past and present programmes, recognising the need to coordinate actions to avoid duplication, increase synergies and enhance complementarities.

“Bridging Actions for GMES & Africa” (BRAGMA) is co-funded under FP7 to support and facilitate the necessary dialogue to implement the GMES & Africa process, through improved coordination, information flows and dissemination. This work is coordinated with the European Commission (DG CNECT, DEVCO, ENTR) and African Union Commission.

This paper will focus on sharing results from the first of a series of expert working groups meetings bringing together African and European thematic experts to contribute to the finalization of the GMES & Africa baseline study and endorsement of a GMES & Africa Action Plan through consultation with African Member States. The GMES & Africa Workshop on Marine and Coastal Areas was held in Mombasa, Kenya, 9-10 October 2012.

The European Location Framework (285)
David Lovell

The Digital Agenda for Europe requires progress in seven pillars or action lines. Geo-Information is relevant and active in three: creating a digital Single Market; achieving greater interoperability and applying information and communications technologies to address challenges facing society like climate change and the ageing population.
The European National Mapping, Cadastre and Land Registry Authorities together with a number of commercial and academic partners aim to deliver tangible progress and operational services in these areas by developing the European Location Framework.
The European Location Framework is a technical infrastructure which delivers authoritative, interoperable, cross-border geospatial reference data for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features.
The European Location Framework will build on the European Interoperability Framework as described in a programme on interoperability solutions for European public administrations (ISA) and the INSPIRE directive. The concept of the European Location Framework was developed in the ESDIN project (2008-2011) which was co-funded by the European Commission’s eContentplus programme.
The European Location Framework will be a major component of the European Spatial Data Infrastructure foreseen in the INSPIRE directive and will provide access to the national geo-information to support GMES services and innovative re-use of Public Sector Information.
The European Location Framework (E.L.F.) will deliver up-to-date, authoritative, interoperable, cross-border, reference geo-information for use by the European public and private sectors.
The ISA funded E.L.F. project will create a sustainable platform for the re-use of authoritative public sector reference geo-information at multiple levels of detail during the pilot phase and beyond
The framework will include:
• Legal and administrative infrastructure
• Technical infrastructure; i.e. services for delivering data
• Data for the services
Through geo-tools implementing E.L.F. specifications, the E.L.F. platform will provide access to reference geo-information and services based on European national mapping and cadastral authorities (NMCAs) and other public sector geo-information. Value-added services can be developed utilizing E.L.F. cloud services.
Successful delivery of the platform and cloud services will:
• Increase the re-use of Public Sector Information (PSI);
• Support use of reference geo-information for example in transportation, business, education, defence, utilities and communications, public safety, natural resources, government policy and health & human services; and
• Provide a basis for innovative new geospatial services to be developed by commercial European multi-nationals and SMEs.
The European citizen will benefit from increased efficiency as the applications they use will be based upon an authoritative common source of reliable reference geo-information, allowing services to join up more readily.
A vital part of the project work is to ensure that the reference geo-information and services to be used by value-added developers and end-users will be legally as well as technically interoperable. This will ensure long term stable availability of the platform and make it a sustainable resource.
In doing so it will:
• Stimulate the wider use of spatial data by public and private sector organisations and citizens in line with the Directive on the re-use of Public Sector Information;
• Make available harmonised information related to one or more of the specific themes enumerated in annexes I-III of the INSPIRE Directive; and
• Encourage the development by the private sector of innovative value-added services based on interoperable information available at a cross-border or pan-European level.

Parallel Session 7.2 (Conf Room 3)

See the workshop description. Seats for this session are limited. To apply for a seat, enroll on your online individual registration form.

Parallel Session 7.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)
Technical Challenges

Semantic Extraction Of Geospatial Information From Historic Topographic Maps Using Object-Oriented Image Analysis (27)
Mahmoud Mahmoud Ibrahim, National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA), Abuja, NG, Norman Kerle, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede, NL

Lately, demand for reliable archival geospatial information has been on the increase and historical topographic map is acclaimed to contain such information in analog format potentially suitable for a variety of environmental and disaster risk management (DRM) programs. Although information extraction from this spatial information source has been done through manual digitizing which is time consuming, inconsistent, biased, tedious and error prone. Hence, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate semantic extraction of encoded geospatial information in paper-based historic topographic map using OOA. Fundamentally this approach robustly and completely recognizes spatially embedded objects on map using knowledge driven OOA algorithms. We demonstrate this on a 1967 map of Nigeria, which shows a variety of landscape features such as hydrographic, vegetation, text and contour line information. The procedure developed extracts these landscape signatures robustly, accurately and swiftly, despite color similarity, inherent map complexity, convolution and overlap with other map elements. OOA-based semantic information was formalized, hydrographic information was efficiently extracted with accuracy of 95%, symbol recognition and extraction recorded 97 and 92 % accuracy for correctness and completeness respectively. Similarly, text extraction reached 70% accuracy and accuracy of contour line extraction measure 55%. The utility of the extracted geospatial information for geoinformation based environmental modeling and DRM programs e.g. multi-temporal hazard and risk assessment was explored for the hydrographic and semantically extracted symbols.

Using Geoinformation Technology in the 2010 Round of the Population and Housing Census (PHC) in Africa (38)
Godheart Mbiydzenyuy Ayenika, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Centre for Statistics (ACS), ET

The role of maps in a census taking is to provide the cartographic basis for enumeration and the platform for spatial census data products such as sampling frames for surveys and census atlases. This paper dwells mainly on census mapping aimed at creating Enumeration Areas (EAs). As the 2010 Round of the PHC comes to an end it is imperative to assess the evolution of census mapping from traditional methods to modern geoinformation alternatives applications used during the 2010 round of the census in Africa. The author strives to provide hands-on and practical solutions based on experience gained in several countries over the last decade in census mapping. The solutions developed points out the importance, role and value of benchmarking government services and the level of their spatial enablement. The experience therefore is of potential benefits to countries that will eventually plan to establish a spatially-enabled government services, especially for departments and agencies that are responsible for the planning and implementation of the next 2020 Round of Population and Housing censuses in Africa.

3D Data Sourcing for Land and Property Information: A Geometric and Semantic Perspective (203)
Ida Jazayeri, Abbas Rajabifard and Mohsen Kalantari, The University of Melbourne, AU

Population growth has prompted land administrators to re-evaluate the current land development cycle, incorporating the third dimension to enable a more complete and effective property registration system. This research, which centres on the 3D data sourcing methods, has suggested a set of data sourcing requirements. It is envisaged that the culmination of legal entities together with the geometric and visual components of our cities in a 3D environment will enable a more complete and effective land and property information registration system that will in turn ultimately help decision-making processes in our governing bodies to better manage economic development and build sustainable communities. Focussing on two of these requirements (geometric and visual) an investigation on data acquisition techniques is discussed. Implementation of UAV data is suggested as an effective data sourcing method, particularly for developing countries and poverty stricken areas, where low cost is critical.

Spatial Metadata Automation in Practice (204)
Hamed Olfat, Abbas Rajabifard, Mohsen Kalantari and Chris Pettit, Centre for SDIs and Land Administration, Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, AU

Current approaches cannot effectively and efficiently manage metadata creation, updating and improvement for the ever-growing amount of spatial data created and exchanged between people or organizations within the Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) and data sharing platforms. In order to overcome the main challenges regarding spatial metadata management, this paper presents the outcomes of a research project undertaken by the authors at the University of Melbourne. The paper first explores the results of a case study investigation in the context of Australia to identify the spatial metadata management and automation requirements. Then, it reviews the results of assessing a number of metadata management tools, which are commonly used within the geospatial community, against a set of criteria developed for this research. The paper then investigates the design, development and evaluation of a framework and associated approaches and tools to facilitate and automate spatial metadata creation, updating (in real time with dataset modification), and enrichment (through the end users’ interactions). This framework took advantages of GML and Web 2.0 technologies. Finally, a metadata system designed and implemented for the Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN) portal based on the outcomes of the research project is reviewed in the paper.

Parallel Session 7.4 (Caucus Room 11)
Assessing SDIs

Using System Dynamics Technique for Modeling the Development of Urban SDI in Tanzania (53)
Alex Lubida, Ali Mansourian, Petter Pilesjö, Ehsan Abdolmajidi, Lund University, SE

Establishment and maintenance of spatial data infrastructure requires enormous amount of resources. Some of African countries, especially Tanzania, are lagging behind on implementing SDI partly because of financial constraints and lack of general knowledge. So, it is important to make reliable decisions leading them to the desired objectives with a minimum degree of risk. In this respect, a simulation model that presents the future pay-off of the infrastructure, as a result of a today’s decision can be very beneficial.

System dynamics is a method that has been used to understand the behavior of complex systems over a given time. It uses internal feedback loops and time delays to study the behavior of the entire system. Mansourian and Abdolmajidi (2011) used this technique and developed the SMSDI to model the development of SDI. In the context of a research project, the SMSDI intends to be adapted for modeling the development of urban SDI in Tanzania and the simulation results to be used for designing strategies. This paper intends to address the outcomes of research till now.

A Description of Spatial Data Infrastructure Stakeholders in Ghana Using the ICA Model (112)
Wiafe Owusu-Banahene, Centre for Geoinformation Science, University of Pretoria, ZA, Foster Mensah, Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Services (CERSGIS), University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, GH, Serena Coetzee, Centre for Geoinformation Science, University of Pretoria, ZA, Antony K Cooper, Built Environment, CSIR, Pretoria, ZA, Victoria Rautenbach, Centre for Geoinformation Science, University of Pretoria, ZA, Kisco M Sinvula, Centre for Geoinformation Science, University of Pretoria, ZA, Emma Nangolo, Independent Researcher, NA, Martin Hippondoka, Department of Geography, History and Environmental Studies, University of Namibia

The National Framework for Geospatial Information Management (NAFGIM) was a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) initiative in Ghana which started around the year 2000. NAFGIM was developed as an integral part of a national effort to manage spatial data about the environment and natural resources. It sought to bring together technology, policies, institutional resources and standards to enhance the production, storage, access and utilization of geographic data and information in Ghana. The International Cartographic Association (ICA) has developed formal models of an SDI, including identifying six types of SDI stakeholders and their specializations. The ICA model has been applied to describe the Namibian SDI (NamSDI). In this paper, we follow this work and use the ICA model to describe NAFGIM. Our experiences show that there is value in modelling the stakeholders in an SDI: it clarifies who the stakeholders are and what their role is or could be in the SDI of a country. In the case of Ghana, current SDI developments can benefit from the stakeholder analysis and discussion presented in this paper: most of the NAFGIM stakeholders are still relevant in current SDI developments as part of the ongoing Land Administration Project. In addition, NAFGIM experiences discussed in this paper, such as the project determination that led to the deterioration of NAFGIM, can inform current SDI developments.

Towards Modelling the SDI Supply Chain in South Africa: The Case of Land Administration Data (191)
Edward Kurwakumire, Serena Coetzee, and Peter Schmitz, University of Pretoria, ZA

A spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is a complex integrated network of spatial data producers, distributors and consumers which can be viewed as an extended geographic information enterprise. One way of gaining a better understanding of an SDI is to break it down into its constituent entities so that individual SDI entities and their interactions can be analysed. Prior SDI literature also suggests analysing the SDIs as complex adaptive systems as they are dynamic rather than static in terms of behavioural aspects. The supply chain model has been used to map, model and analyse complex business processes. This study views an SDI from the supply chain perspective by describing the business processes towards the creation of spatial data sets and the participation of different actors in this value addition process. We show the benefits of applying the supply chain model not only in modelling the processes but also in managing the SDI as a whole. We model the supply chain for land administration data and discuss the relevance its relevance in analysing the SDI.

Towards An Online Self-Assessment Methodology for SDIs (233)
Garfield Giff, GeoInformation Management Consortium, CA, John Jackson, Advanced Mapping Systems, LLC

This presentation investigates and analyzes current SDI assessment activities that focus on stakeholders’ assessment and proposes an efficient cost-effective methodology for assessing SDIs from the stakeholders’ perspective. Currently SDI organizations assess stakeholder performance based on a readiness or a generalized performance model from the SDI perspective. However, the performance of an SDI organization depends on the performance of stakeholder organizations which are motivated by business fundamentals to pursue enterprise GIS. The authors introduce the concept of a comprehensive integrated enterprise GIS / SDI assessment model from the stakeholders’ perspective, and suggest an online approach as a cost-effective method. The Chapter then moves on to describe the online assessment model and illustrates its suitability for both stakeholders and SDI assessments. A summary of the benefits of this methodology and areas requiring further development concludes the presentation.

Lesson-Learning Trajectory of the Development of Geospatial Data Infrastructure in Nigeria (62)
Olajide Kufoniyi, Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

The development of spatial data infrastructure in one form or the other in Nigeria started in 1990 with an unsuccessful attempt to implement a national land information system. This was followed by the implementation of a Land Information System by Lagos State in the mid-1990s. The project was completed but not sustained. Another national effort was made from 1996 to 1998 to implement what was then called a national geoinformation infrastructure (NGII) with committees set-up to draft a policy for the process, look at technical issues and funding mechanism; attempt was also made to carry out the inventory of existing geospatial datasets in the country before the initiative was abandoned in 1998. In September 2003, the Federal Government of Nigeria, commenced what turned out to be a successful state-level SDI implementation for the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, called Abuja Geographic Information Systems. In September 2002, a National Committee was established and inaugurated by the Hon. Minister of Science and Technology to draft a geoinformation policy for the country. The draft, which was circulated to stakeholders for comments including a stakeholders' workshop, was submitted to the Hon Minister in September 2003. A national committee and various sub-committees were then set-up to guide the realisation of the initiative. Attempt was also made in 2010 to review the draft policy with a plan to follow it up with approval of the Government and enactment by the National Assembly. Meanwhile, a 'quick win' pilot implementation was done in 2010 using four agencies that have mandate to produce some of the fundamental datasets defined in the draft policy. This paper presents an overview of these various attempts at implementing SDI at national and state levels in Nigeria and discusses the challenges faced with the aim of contributing to lesson learning in SDI development in Africa. The paper further examines implemented and on-going geospatial activities, such as implementation of continuously operating reference stations, large scale aerial mapping, e-land administration systems in various states and the national land reform programme that could potentially contribute to SDI development in Nigeria and proposes the way forward.

Parallel Session 7.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Geospatial Research Reports: Water & Crops

Development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure for the water sector of Benin (267)
Johannes van der Kwast, UNESCO-IHE, NL, Dick van den Bergh, Deltares, NL, Daouda Mama and Peace Hounkpe, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, BJ, Joop de Schutter, UNESCO-IHE, NL

Benin has adequate water resources for food production, drinking water and nature conservation. Nevertheless, unsustainable agricultural and other land-use practices and water use, combined with the anticipated effects of climate change and population growth threaten the water resources. As more West African countries, Benin is already confronted with large environmental problems such as seasonal water shortages, (urban) pollution, salinization and increasing damage due to flooding. For this reason Benin adopted Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) as the key policy to manage its large problems with water resources in a sustainable way.
Since 2009 a water policy exists. In 2010 a new water act was adopted. Furthermore, there is a climate adaptation plan (Plan d'Action National d'Adaptation aux Changement Climatiques; PANA) and the national action plan for IWRM (Plan d'Action National pour la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau; PANGIRE).
IWRM, however, cannot be done without an in depth knowledge of water resources in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Both public and private stakeholders in the water sector of Benin, who are responsible for the operational strategies and policies, lack knowledge and data on, e.g. the amount of groundwater recharge, the network and discharge of river systems, the dynamics on catchment level, water quality and ecological status.
In order to develop capacity in the water sector, the Dutch funded Nuffic NICHE 167 project aims to establish a National Water Institute (Institute National de l'Eau; INE). The INE will organise short courses and develop a research agenda tailored to the needs of the water sector. Furthermore the INE will provide specialised consultancy services at the interface of science and policy for water management. A quick scan needs assessment done in Benin in May 2013 showed that the water sector urgently needs a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) to improve the quality and the access to data collected by the different stakeholders. This study presents an approach for setting up and maintaining an SDI at the national level and the challenges that need to be tackled. An SDI is defined by the technology used, policies and standards applied, human resources and institutions participating, and activities necessary to acquire, process, distribute, use, maintain, and preserve geo-referenced data.

Local lacunarity Analysis of Agricultural Landscape Image in Northeastern Tanzania (120)
Gen Ueda, Tohoku University, JP

This study examines land cover/use patterns employing local lacunarity analysis as developed in fractal geometry, illuminating the scale (spatial resolution) property of satellite/aerial-photo images and investigating its applicability to extraction of agricultural landscape elements and identification of their size. Lacunarity is an index that is used to quantify homogeneity and texture properties of an image, showing the extent to which the spatial pattern of an image deviates from translational invariance at different scales. In geography and related research fields, lacunarity of various spatial patterns has been analyzed, including drainage systems, soil erosion, tropical forest, urban vegetation and so forth. While a research focus concerning lacunarity is on the improvement in classification accuracy, there is also room for applying the lacunarity method to investigation on the scale property of an image and the size of its landscape components. Viewing from the latter angle, this study evaluates the capability of local lacunarity analyses in the study of agricultural landscape in rural Africa, applying them to high spatial resolution images of agricultural land cover of the mountainous areas in Arusha Region, Northeastern Tanzania. An ISODATA clustering is employed to generate a set of clusters based on various local lacunarity raster images at different spatial scales, and the local lacunarity mean values of the pixels belonging to each cluster at a particular set of window and box sizes are plotted and examined. The analysis finds out (i) different types of agricultural landscape texture, one of which is building plot surrounded by perennial crop field, (ii) scaling effect of the analysis on different landscape texture, and (iii) areal differentiation in the manner of landscape mix and corresponding processes of land use change in different parts of the research area. The study also looks into land subdivision that is behind the present agricultural landscape in the frontier settlement zone.

Parallel Session 8.1 (Conf Room 2)
Earth Observation from Space

The South African Earth Observation System of Systems (SAEOSS) portal (185)
Terence Newby, NEOSS, ZA, Wim Hugo, SAEON, ZA, Lulekwa, NEOSS, ZA

Earth Observations science has and is producing vast quantities of data. Much of this data is not readily accessible to users, planners , practitioners and decision makers at national, provincial and local (municipal) level. The SAEOSS system has been developed to allow all levels of government and civil society to empower themselves through earth observation data discovery and access. The system also envisages the inclusion of the capability to generate value added (decision support and planning) products for specified geographical areas. Although the technologies are available for a fully operational system, a number of challenges remain. These include band width limitations, willingness of data custodians to share data through the system, the scarcity of open access operational data collection systems (especially in-situ systems), the absence of standardised metadata and data formats and the scarcity of operational ready data processing models and algorithms for the generation of value added decision support and planning products.

Utilization of UrtheCast’s High-Definition Video from the International Space Station (268)
Justin Segal, UrtheCast, CA, Dr. Rao S. Ramayanam, UrtheCast, US

By developing the first high-definition (HD) streaming video platform of Earth, UrtheCast is changing the way we view the world. With the help of world-class aerospace partners like RSC Energia, UrtheCast is building, launching, installing, and will operate two cameras onboard the International Space Station (ISS), making it the only provider of near realtime HD Earth video from space. This paper presents an overview of the technical aspects of the two cameras, the unique orbit characteristics of the ISS, sample simulated imagery and videos, and some potential applications.

When natural disasters strike, humanitarian relief organizations and civil governments will benefit from UrtheCast's 1.1-meter resolution video footage and 5.5-meter resolution still imagery to evaluate ground conditions and guide rapid-response efforts. It is often impossible to assess the extent of damage from the ground, making near real-time imagery from space a valuable information source, especially for remote regions of the world. In times of crisis, UrtheCast will quickly gather video and images and incorporate them into its online delivery platform, to portray the reality of the disrupted areas, and enable response teams to determine the fastest, safest access routes.

UrtheCast imagery also offers some unique advantages for supporting the management of Earth's natural resources: from monitoring agricultural crops, to managing the risk of wildfires, mapping remote watersheds, observing vegetation levels of a tropical rainforest, or evaluating the impacts of humans on the environment.

UrtheCast continues to partner with agencies that specialize in natural disaster relief, environmental monitoring, media broadcasting, and more, including the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)’s Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). As a part of this agreement, UrtheCast will provide Earth imagery data for the purpose of monitoring humanitarian relief efforts across the globe.

SAGA-EO: networking of multi thematic earth observation users (273)
Jean-Guy Planès and Pascal Lazaridis, Thalès Alenia Space, FR, Emilio Barisano, Geosat Technology, FR

The SAGA-EO project consists in a feasibility study to design, set-up and assess dedicated multi-thematic networks of actors in individual African countries. Each network is organised according to a model named horizontal model for pooling and exploiting the common means (EO based information, infrastructure or knowledge) of its constituting thematic.

SAGA-EO supports the GMES and Africa initiative on the cross cutting issue “Infrastructure framework” by enhancing the capacity of national actors on the use of EO based information for environment and resources management.

The purpose is to study this organisational model and its associated technologies and to assess that the concept is workable in five African countries (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Congo and Mozambique) through four actions:
1. To define African national EO user network organisational model;
2. To identify generic technological solutions, compatible with standards, to receive, archive, share, disseminate, advise on products derived from EO sensors (space-borne, air-borne and in situ);
3. To assess that the concept of the proposed organisational model is realistic and workable in the five countries;
4. To provide recommendations on the necessary steps needed for implementing the network.

To highlight the benefits of this model, two generic scenarii were played during assessment sessions in the five national networks:
· Food Security: monitoring of agricultural season;
· Flood: monitoring of water level in risky areas.

The study is an FP7 Collaborative & Support Action co-funded by the European Commission. It has been kicked-off in August 2010 and ended in October 2012 so that, after a quick presentation of the project guidelines, the results of the project will be developed and the recommendations highlighted.

Earth Observation in Hungarian Space Cluster and its links to the NSDI (170)
Gabor Remetey-Fülöpp, HUNAGI, HU, Peter Hargitai, Geoadat Ltd, HU, Pál Bárczy, Admatis Ltd, HU

The Hungarian Space Cluster and its links with the national spatial data infrastructure will be introduced.
Earth Observation (EO) is an integrated part of Hungarian Space Cluster activities. Development of EO technologies results that more and more very high resolution (VHR) images are available with increasing amount of spectral channel.
Using EO technologies results rapid and thorough building and analysis of databases in several application areas: agriculture, areal planning, mapping, disaster management, weather changes, nature protection, etc.
One priority area of EO is agriculture, as an important factor of Hungarian economy. The use of multispectral VHR images is already part of the agriculture subsidy control with remote sensing and further development is possible for the analysis of biomass control, crop estimation, different cultivation methods, damages of agricultural lands, weed control, etc.
Other important area is disaster management; EO technologies provide rapidly available data and information from broad areas for the faster intervention e.g. in case of floods or forest fires. With satellite images can be easily mapped and monitored the disaster area and they help the damage assessment as well. By VHR images not only large damages, but also local e.g. industrial damage events could be reconstructed.
Nowadays EO is increasingly used in other, not so “traditional” sectors. Joining units of suitable data choice, entire ingestion–processing chains and ergonomic interfaces can only offer a timely and professional solution for the challenges of industry, business, and decision making.

The use of high resolution satellite data for crop monitoring and damage assessment in Ethiopia (West-Shewa) (126)
Isabelle Piccard, Carolien Tote and Ozüm Durgun VITO, BE, Seyfu Bekele and Teshome Erkineh, GeoSAS, ET

In the frame of the ISAC project, funded by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme, prototype products and services were developed and demonstrated for providing information on agriculture and the agro-environment in Europe and Africa. Spatial information on drought risk and on agricultural productivity was derived from time series of high frequency, high resolution (< 30m) satellite images, such as DMC, Deimos-1 and Landsat-TEM/ETM+. For what concerns Africa, these services particularly served the needs of the food security sector, in support of early warning activities, thereby improving current services which are mainly based on low to medium resolution satellite data (SPOT-VGT, MODIS), and served the development of micro-insurance products.
In 2012 the ISAC services were demonstrated in Ethiopia (West-Shewa province). High resolution vegetation indices (NDVI) and biophysical parameters (fAPAR, LAI and fCover) were produced from May till December 2012. To assess whether the Meher crops were growing well or not, anomaly maps were generated, comparing the actual situation with average conditions. Because of the lack of high resolution archive data, MODIS data were used to build a “historical archive at high resolution” as the MODIS sensor on the one hand and DMC, Deimos-1 and Landsat sensors on the other hand are quite comparable from a spectral point of view. Extensive field surveys were organized to validate the anomaly maps. Road surveys were organized to assess crop development stage and possible anomalies. In a number of key areas farmers were interviewed to obtain more detailed information on their agricultural practices, problems that may have occurred during the season and finally on the crop yields they obtained.

Parallel Session 8.2 (Conf Room 3)
SDI Development and Data Sharing

Experiences In Developing Spatial Data Infrastructure - Case Of Malawi (113)
Chresceuntia Matambo - Msasa, The Polytechnic College, University of Malawi, MW

Malawi, like other African countries, has gone through a familiar phase in Geographic Information System (GIS) development whereby different organizations or sectors engage in GIS activities without coordination. This led to data sets of national importance from various organisations not being able to be integrated or exchanged resulting into duplication of data collection efforts and the production of incompatible data.

There were so many projects involving spatial data collection and one of them was Malawi Environmental Monitoring Project (MEMP) whose one of its functions was to establish an Environmental Monitoring System (EIS). There was need for spatial data for the project to achieve its objectives. It was at this juncture that it was realized that there was need to have a system that would facilitate access to, exchange, share and integration of spatial data. It was also appreciated that there was need for coordination of geo-data producers and also that application of standards to spatial data production was vital. This was evidenced by how digitization of core data sets was being carried out by different organizations from different sources at different accuracies without any agreed spatial data standards.

This realization hatched the idea of coming up with a Spatial Data Infrastructure. The idea was supported by the National Land Policy which called for the establishment of an inter-sectoral arrangement for accurate, sustainable production and management of spatial data among agencies responsible for managing land-based resources. In the same vein, the national committee was established under the name Malawi Geographic Information Coordination Committee (MAGICC) which later changed to Malawi Geographic Information Council (MAGIC) under the leadership of the Surveyor General. The formation of MAGICC was against the background of “provision of a coordinating function for producers and users of geographic information, or spatial data, in Malawi drawing from the private, public, academic and research sectors of society”. The MAGIC mission statement was “To assist Malawi in realizing the potential information and communication technologies offer to support sustainable development through the continued development and utilization of spatial data. Spatial data development will best be achieved through the development of a national spatial data infrastructure to complement advances in ICT development.”

After the establishment of MAGIC, a National Spatial Data Centre (NSDC) was also set which was a secretariat for MAGIC as well as a one stop centre for spatial data. All necessary policies (spatial data transfer policy- copyright, cost, privacy licenses for end users, data formats and standards; financial and human resources arrangements were also defined. These policies were also to be included in the revised Land Survey Act which would also legalize the operations of MAGIC.

The establishment of NSDC was one of the preferred access models for spatial data. The model based on a centralized data host acting as a data service centre where users would access data directly through the centre or be provided contact information for data maintained at remote sites.

The formalization of both MAGIC and NSDC depended on their legalization through the amendment of the Land Survey Act. The Ministry of Justice was tasked to prepare the Land Survey Bill for the formalization of MAGIC which never saw its day at Parliament to-date. This has rendered the whole process of Spatial Data Infrastructure formation stagnant.

SDI change in action: A prospective approach from the need of Land Administration in the context of the new Cuban economic and social model (232)
Tatiana Delgado (Guillermo Gonzalez), Higher Polytechnic Institute Jose Antonio Echeverria, CU

One of the most significant events since previous SDI´s reports of Cuba is the adoption of the Economic and Social Policy Guidelines, which constitute a body of decisions essential to the updating of the Cuban economic and social model and a government program.
New regulations have been adopted to expand the legislative base, such as those related to social security, housing, employment and exclusively self-employed work, the granting of land in usufruct, among others. At least three examples that imply changes of the address that National SDI initiative should follow. They are (1) Decree-Law No. 281/2011, which establishes a new National Government Information System; (2) Decree-Law 300 (2012) which replaces No. 259 governing the awarding of idle land in usufruct enabling change of land tenure and use; and (3) Law 113, from January 1, 2013 seeks an improved distribution of the wealth generated by the country, but also includes responsibilities from new owners of properties. Other policies on Local Development and Urban Cadaster are being promoted too.
This paper focuses on three essential aspects to undertake a prospective analysis (2014-2018) on the SDI in Cuba: alignment with government priorities (related to Land Administration), readiness and governance.

Geospatial Data Sharing in Pakistan: Possibilities and Problems (69)
Asmat Ali and Munir Ahmad, Survey of Pakistan, PK

The benefits of sharing of geospatial data are well grounded in theory and practice. However, the mechanism to share geospatial data is still not in place in most of the lesser developed countries such as Pakistan. In Pakistan, lots of geospatial data is available with various public and private sector organizations. The major part of this data is being produced by public sector organizations to facilitate their mandated responsibilities. These organizations are continuously busy in collecting, processing, updating and maintenance of geospatial data. Although, Government of Pakistan (GoP) is funding public sector organizations to develop geospatial data, but at the same time, it is not playing its role to facilitate data sharing among stakeholders and the common user community in the country. Moreover, due to advancements in geospatial technologies, the cost of data acquisition has dropped significantly. Resultantly, the data is increasing, not only in volume, but in variety of formats also. The dilemma is that presently, only a fractional part of this data is being benefited to support empirical decision making process for socio-economic planning and developmental projects. This is due to high cost of finding, integrating and analyzing data on one hand and restraints in its speedy dissemination to the users on the other, which is, no doubt, a new challenge. To meet this challenge, strategic planning for sharing of geospatial data is required on emergent basis, which is missing in the current scenario of geospatial data management in the country. This situation triggers the question, what are the issues relating to geospatial data sharing in Pakistan? This paper, will therefore, address issues relating to sharing of geospatial data in the country. The paper will also look into the possibilities of data sharing besides presenting guidelines for achieving success in the sharing of geospatial data, which is the over riding objective of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs).

Integrating advanced geospatial technologies and PPP approach to reduce land conflicts and increase LG revenues in developing countries (183)
Julian Ijumulana, University of Dar es Salaam, TZ, Jovitus Kamuzora, World Map Consultants Limited, TZ

Geospatial technology, in particular GIS, GPS Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and open source spatial data, has advanced and can now be considered as another cost effective tool for the professional land resources managers world wide. The prevailing ineffective and inefficient land information systems (LIS) in many local government authorities (LGA’s) of many developing countries is a result of lacking ‘field to finish’ data collection technologies and qualified personnel to develop integrated spatial databases. This paper introduces the cost effective and environmental friendly approach of land surveying, mapping, plot design and land use allocation, and cadastral database establishment. The approach integrates the Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) technically termed as Participatory GIS approach and advanced geospatial technologies to eliminate the land conflicts arising when the LGA’s implement the land development projects. The PPP approach makes the community aware on the anticipated land development project and the advanced geospatial technologies enhance the spatial data collection process in terms of time, cost and dissemination. It is concluded that the land conflicts, illegal land development practices and government revenues tracking is possible when PPP approach and modern geospatial technologies are integrated.

A Spatial Data Infrastructure for data on climate change and adapted land use in West Africa (198)
Ralf Kunkel (Antonio Rogmann), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, DE, Antonio Rogmann, Center of Development Research, Bonn, DE, Juergen Sorg and Huaping Wang, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, DE

WASCAL (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) is a large-scale research-focused program designed to help tackle this challenge and thereby enhance the resilience of human and environmental systems to climate change and increased variability. It does so by strengthening the research infrastructure and capacity in West Africa related to climate change and by pooling the expertise of ten West African countries and Germany. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), WASCAL is implemented in a collaborative effort by West African and German partners.
Within WASCAL a large number of heterogeneous data are collected. These data are coming from different initiated research activities and the hydrological-meteorological, remote sensing, biodiversity and socio economic observation networks within WASCAL, the activities of the WASCAL Competence Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso, which carries out research and provides science-based advice to policymakers and stakeholders on climate change impacts, mitigation, and adaptation measures, and other external research activities within West-Africa.
In order to facilitate the acquisition, provision, integration, management and exchange of these heterogeneous data resources within a scientific and non-scientific multiuser (distributed) environment the spatial data infrastructure (SDI) WADI (WAscal Data Infrastructure) has been build-up. Each institution contributing to WASCAL may host an individual data infrastructure to manage and to exchange “own” data and metadata. Alternatively, data may be incorporated into the central data infrastructure located at the WASCAL Competence Center. The communication between individual infrastructures and WADI is accomplished by OGC compliant Web services, which supply standards and interfaces to search in and to access to spatial data. Consequent usage of these standards guarantees an interoperable access and allows in addition the integration of data from other data holders without bigger expenditure.
Data documentation through metadata is an essential requirement for assessment and evaluation of the observation data within a spatial data infrastructure and also for keep data applicable and interpretable. In WADI, metadata acts as an important gateway to geospatial information since they contain a description of the data and the locations where it can be obtained. Therefore, data are always being regarded as a combination of data itself and its describing metadata. A Data Management Plan specifies applicable standards together with semantic concepts for the harmonization of describing terms.
A central “umbrella” portal application allows to query, visualize and access all data and metadata (depending on the data owners) from the contributing institutions in a standardized way and acts in this way as a database node providing scientists and stakeholder with reliable and well accessible data and data products. The majority of data, especially geo and sensor data, is not hosted at the portal itself, but at distributed data sources and provided through OGC services. Data search features in distributed OGC Catalogue Services allow a hierarchical data search by keywords and a sensor specific search for sensor observed data. Furthermore a full text search within indexed documents is implemented too. In addition, Web-GIS functionalities were integrated to allow a location dependent visualization and, finally, downloading geospatial data provided by distributed OGC-Services.

Parallel Session 8.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)
Technical Approaches

A Discovery Geospatial Portal for Promoting Geo-ICT Use in Rwanda (70)

Felicia O. Akinyemi, Kigali Institute of Science and Technology, RW, Bernard Hakizimana, Ministry of Local Government, RW, Jean Damascene Mazimpaka, National University of Rwanda, RW

The level of awareness as regards the use of spatial data for national development is high in Rwanda. Within the context of Geo-Information and Communication Technologies (Geo-ICT), various institutions, especially the government ministries and agencies are aspiring to use spatial data in their day to day activities in order to fulfil their various mandates. Efforts in this direction include the production of different types of spatial data sets. Alongside, they are organising customized short-term trainings and refresher courses for their staff in different aspects of spatial data production and management as well as geographic information technologies such as GIS, Cartography, Surveying and Remote Sensing. To implement different Geo-ICT based applications and projects, there is increasing demand for and use of geographic information (GI). Considering the fact that spatial datasets are produced by different ministries and the inability of a single department or organisation to meet its spatial data needs, it becomes necessary to share data and information within and between different organisations. As an option for facilitating this process of data access and sharing, we consider the development of a geoportal to organise web based contents and services. This paper describes the content and features of the Rwanda geospatial portal as a discovery portal to promote GI use, access and dissemination. It also demonstrates the technological feasibility of implementing web based mapping services in Rwanda at minimal cost using free and open source software (FOSS). The application of FOSS is particularly noted as financial considerations are a major deterrent to developing geoportals and other Geo-ICT applications in developing countries.

Combining Drupal Content Management System with OGC Web Services (281)
Terefe Hanchiso Sodango, Haramaya University, ET, U.D. (Ulanbek) Turdukulov and B.J. (Barend) Köbben, International Institute for Geo-information Sciences and Earth Observation (ITC), NL

Following the recent developments in web technology, Geographic Information Systems are becoming increasingly web services oriented. OGC Web Services are the essential elements of web GIS. The two main and widely used are WMS and WFS. Obviously as there is a need to share these services on the web, there is also a need to make systems safe and secured from unauthorized use. Part of the solution is applying different roles, privileges and permission levels to users in order to make the services be accessible and consumable by authorized users only. Content Management System is a suitable tool to implement the aforementioned functionality.
This study aims at finding the suitable Drupal software stacks for implementing OGC Web Services and access control. Drupal CMS is proposed because it is free and has a lot of powerful modules for the intended purpose. Various geospatial modules were combined with Drupal CMS for the implementation of WMS, WFS, WFS-T and access control. Some of the tested modules were: Mapping Kit, OpenLayers, Nicemap, Mapbox, MapServer, Mapstraction, OpenLayers KML Layer, Umapper, WMS, WFS, Content Access, Access Control List (ACL), Field Permission and others. Among these, Mapping Kit and OpenLayers were selected for further investigation and implementation in Drupal-6.26 environment.
These two modules were selected over others due to their suitability for OGC compliant Web Services (WMS, WFS and WFS-T). On the other hand, Content Access, Access Control Lists and Field Permission modules were selected for access control. A number of other modules which are not listed here were also assessed.
To impose the RBAC (Role Based Access Control) on entities (WMS, WFS, WFS-T) three arbitrary additional roles namely: Planner, Resident and Public were created. The roles were assigned with different permission levels in the system based on a usecase scenario assumed by the author. Every Drupal node consisting of WMS, WFS or WFS-T services was set RBAC. For each role, user accounts were created to test functionality of access control.
More generally, in this study Drupal stack which is suitable for serving OGC compliant Web Services and applying access control is selected and implemented.

Challenges Of Basemap Preparation From High Resolution Satellite Images For 600 Small Towns Of Ethiopia (222)
Shifun Hailu, Reshdan Technologies Plc., ET

As towns grow more rapidly and pose challenges to a planned urban life, urban economic development, infrastructure requirements and accessibility, the availability of basemap and geo-spatial information become fundamental instruments for intervention, good governance and development.

Problems related to the routine base map preparation and plan making process based on analogue methodology requires the introduction and application of new tools. Satellite imagery and use of Geographical Information System (GIS) are examples of such tools that facilitate preparation of rapid, comprehensive, rational and implementable urban plans

Hence, The Ministry of Urban Development and Construction of Ethiopia developed a project to prepare base maps for 600 small urban centers from high resolution stereo satellite imageries, in four years, under the envisaged program for poverty alleviation, PASDEP Initiative, “Ethiopia’s Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty”. The general objective is to acquire stereo Imageries with one or less than one meter ground resolution and relevant hardware and software and based upon which to produce 3D digital maps for these urban centers that could be used for the preparation of urban plans and thereby assist to execute rational and informed decisions. In addition it helps to build the overall capacity of the regions with the necessary system and procedures to close the urban information management system gap and to acquire training for relevant professionals on geo-information science in all the regions of Ethiopia..

Till that time, the experience in base map preparation of the Office had been conventional, labor intensive, costly, time taking and centralized at the head office, not to mention the limitations it had with regard to up-to-date information handling. In addition, the office was producing base maps with a local coordinate system which denies a seamless data handling and that doesn’t give the chance to integrate the data in to the nationally/internationally applied geo-spatial reference system such as the UTM and/or the WGS84.

With this rationale, the base map preparation for urban planning purpose was first to have a pilot project for 15 small towns with a hired consultant. And based upon the envisage results of this pilot project 150 small towns as a first phase and the remaining 450 small towns in three consecutive phases would be executed. Results indicate that many images were captured repeatedly for the165 towns. But out of these, about 85 images of small towns have been found to be up to the set urban mapping standards especially in cloud cover/natural barrier. Hence, in the paper the methods applied, processes involved challenges faced, bottlenecks encountered, lessons learnt and limitations identified and recognized in the due course are discussed in line with tables and images.

Therefore we could conclude that this project is not fully successful except for the complete procurement of relevant photogrammetric hardware and software and for the 85 small towns out of 165 (15 pilot and 150 first phase towns). The imaging process for the remaining three phases of 450 small towns are deferred due to the non-rational plan of the ambitious project, the experience gained such as the unpredicted weather condition, expiration of the World Bank budget and other internal and external reasons. And it is our believe this paper can give some hints to those who are planning to map many towns from High Resolution freshly collected Stereo Satellite Images at one time.

Orthometric Height Determination using GPS to Fast Track Development: a Case study of Nairobi County, Kenya (50)
Benson Kenduiywo, Edward Waithaka, and Patroba Odera, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Geomatic Engineering and Geospatial Information Systems, KE

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is commonly considered a three-dimensional system. However, the heights obtained from GPS are typically heights above an ellipsoidal model of the Earth. The heights are not consistent with levelled heights above mean sea level, often known as orthometric height. Orthometric heights reflect the nature of terrain and are useful in geodetic and surveying applications. Conversion from ellipsoidal heights to orthometric height requires a geoid undulation model. The objective of this study was to design a geoid undulation model of Nairobi province using geometric approach in order to facilitate transformation of ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights. The approach is based on a simple relationship between ellipsoidal h, orthometric H and geoid undulation N heights. We used a second order polynomial to interpolate geoid surface variation within the study area. Parameters of the polynomial were computed from a set of controls with predetermined ellipsoidal and orthometric heights using least squares indirect observation method. A designed user interface based on the approach transformed ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights to an accuracy of 9 cm. The accuracy level enables the use of GPS for applications like engineering feasibility studies, approximating earth works and topographic mapping. Use such developed approach for determination of heights using shortens the time taken using ordinary levelling surveying. Surveying takes a bigger percentage cost in most engineering projects like road construction and power line route surveys. Therefore, the designed approach will spur sustainable infrastructural development by providing fast and accurate alternative means of determining orthometric heights. Moreover, orthometric heigh are significant in producing contours in topographic and thematic maps which are important sources of spatial baseline information.

Mobile Reporting and Spatial Decision Support System (150)
Shewadeg Molla Namaga, ET

A mobile phone system was developed in light of enhancing reporting of incidents that happen in remote areas where accessing information from is not any easy. The system was developed in two different modules for sending and receiving the reports for two Windows Mobile phones. The system works in such a way that the sender phone sends the required information, including longitude - latitude of the information source area, as an SMS and the receiving phone transfers the information into an SQL server which the phone is attached to. The data that is transferred to the SQL server, based on the longitude-latitude information is converted to XY-Event Layer in an ArcGIS environment, which later is transformed into a feature class that is further loaded onto a GDB based on which a map service is developed. The map service is then used to display the incident on a web browser.
The system, especially, for the sender Window mobile phones, was developed using C# .NET as a data entry interface. The interface on the sender mobile phone is developed in such a way that it requires no GIS knowledge at all. SQL CE edition was used to manage some information in the mobile phones, and SQL Server Express edition was used as a back-end to manage the data. The message interceptor in the Windows Mobile phone was programmed so that it transmits the SMS as simple text data, which is modeled in ArcGIS so that the final result is displayed to decision makers and authorized users as point feature in a web browser.

Parallel Session 8.4 (Caucus Room 11)
GMES and Africa Roundtable

See the workshop description.

Parallel Session 8.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Geospatial Research Studies: Change and Prediction

A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of the National Parks in Nigeria: A Geo-Information Approach (48)
Seidu O. Mohammed, NASRDA, NG, Efron N. Gajere, NCRS, NG, Ezekiel O. Eguaroje, John O. Ogbole, Nnaemeka D, Onyeuwaoma, and Idowu Kolawole, COPINE, NG

Human activities have caused unprecedented changes in the ecosystem and environmental process. These changes have created a loss in biodiversity and have also resulted in environmental degradation as a consequence of lack of planning. Therefore, Landuse/Landcover information is essential for a number of planning and management activities at the Local, Regional and National levels. This is because they provide the basic information on the spatial location and distribution of human and natural resources both in qualitative and quantitative terms. These quests gave rise to the evaluation of the status and conditions of the Natural and built Resources in Nigeria at the scale of 1:100,000. This is with specific interest on National parks using NigeriaSat1 images of 2007, Landsat images of 2001 and FORMECU 1995,which was also subjected comparative analysis. Also, reconnaissance survey and fieldwork was done across the country. Various multi-Temporal Satellite data Layers were brought together in a GIS environment to assess the pattern and magnitude of changes in the Parks between 1995 and 2007. A general accuracy of 81 percent was achieved. It was found out that the number and size of these National Parks (Forest and Game Reserves) were consistently on the decrease between 2001 and 2007.

Mapping tree cover change and the forcing drivers in West Africa (127)
Michael Thiel and Gerald Forkuor, University of Wuerzburg, DE, Louis Evence Zoungrana, University of Ouagadougou, BF, Christopher Conrad, University of Wuerzburg, DE

The Sudanian savanna belt is prone to extensive droughts, as occurred in the 1960s and in the 1980s. At the same time this region experiences high population growth rates, e.g. in Burkina Faso currently about 2.6% annually. The concurrently increased demand in agricultural products combined with the effects of drought has contributed to increasing agriculture area extend and decreasing tree cover in this region. In addition, the ongoing change in climate conditions will force this process. The German founded project WASCAL (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Land Use) will evaluate the changes that are expected in view of the climate change in West Africa and will find adaptation solutions for the local population.

The first goal of this research is to map the actual tree cover and the change over the last 30 years utilizing remote sensing data from the Landsat program. Next, these results will be combined with ancillary data like population information, road network, and settlement areas to analyze the driving forces behind the tree cover change. Thus, the results should be detailed maps that presents the distribution and the influence of these drivers.

This paper will present the scheduled working plan and preliminary results of the tree cover change and driver analysis.

Predictive Analysis of landslide susceptibility in a fast developing city, Uyo, Nigeria using GIS-DEMs (266)
Charles Udosen, Eroflod Projects Ltd, NG, Eze (Prof) Eze, University of Calabar, NG

Landslides are ubiquitous geomorphic features in the loose/ weakly cemented soils formed from the Coastal Plains Sands in different parts of Southeastern Nigeria due to widespread gully erosion resulting from infrequent occurrence of high intensity and prolonged rainstorms during the peak of wet season(June-September). In this area landslide occur mostly as earth movement, mud flow, and debris flows on slopes previously weakened by flood water. Geographic Information System [GIS] was employed as a system with advanced geo-modeling capabilities[DEM] combined with field observation were used in this study to map potential areas of landslides in Uyo area of Akwa Ibom State in Southeastern Nigeria. The study generated landslide zonation map highlighting areas of different degrees of susceptibility elevation in meters. Slope surface in degrees was also generated and reclassified into three slope classes (uniform, gentle and steep) using the same reclassification algorithm. The result indicates that 89,583m2 representing 10.59% of the total catchment of 845,918m2 is highly susceptible to landslide.

Parallel Session 8.6 (Computer Lab xx)
Management of Mining and Environmental Permit Geodatabases

See the workshop description.

Parallel Session 9.1 (Conf Room 2)
Data Policy, Business Model Approaches and ...

50 Shades of Grey: Proprietary v open source software - it's not a black and white issue (279)
Andrew Coote, ConsultingWhere, GB

Several governments, including Germany, have introduced an “open by default” policy, compelling public sector organisations to select open source solutions, unless it can be shown not to meet the requirements. The presenter will argue that selecting open source or proprietary solutions is not as simple as is often suggested. He will try and cut through some of the emotion and look objectively at key issues:

• What defines an open source solutions? Most are intermediated i.e. bought as part of a package from a vendor;
• Most proprietary solutions have substantial elements of open source within them;
• What are the components of cost of ownership of the complete solution – the software is often only a small part;
• Economic appraisal of the benefits – some productivity case study comparisons;
• What can we learn from the wider ICT industry.

The objective will be to stimulate debate, the presentation will be short to allow time for discussion.

The Role Of Geospatial Data As A Catalyst For Socio-Economic Development Of Nigeria (282)
Ademola Adeyemi, National Planning Commission, NG

The importance of Geospatial data has not been seriously appreciated in planning related programmes in this country. The lack of geospatial data in planning and policy-making has contributed to the persistent failure in the implementation of development plans and policies in Nigeria. Since 1999, when the democratic governance emerged, a roadmap was established through the publication of Nigeria Vision 20: 2020. The main goal of this vision is to lift Nigeria into the 20 world-class economies in the world by the year 2020. In addition, Nigeria will be seen as a knowledge-based economy by the year 2020.
However, one of the greatest concerns of National Planning Commission is the lack of Geospatial data infrastructure to make this NV20: 2020 achievable. In this paper, the issue of planning without facts was raised, the lack of National Geospatial data infrastructure, the rationale for Nigeria to have a sustainable scientific database in National Planning Commission were addressed. The paper further x-rayed the importance of geographic information and remote sensing technologies for the NV20: 2020 to be achieved. Equally, the role of various Agencies such as Office of the Surveyor-General of the Federation and National Space Research and Development Agencies and other institutions revolving around the provision and usability of geospatial data were identified. Presently the application of geospatial data was not being utilized for decision-making process by various Government Agencies in the country.
With the plethora of modern technology availability, the infusion of geospatial data in decision and policy-making should not be a problem for a developing economy like Nigeria that is aspiring to be among the top 20 economies in the world by the year 2020. Finally, the paper proffers some pragmatic solutions of how Nigeria could overcome the problem of non-inclusion of geospatial data in development plans.

Making Available Multitemporal Coverages at Continental Scale in Africa: DEIMOS-1 Imaging Campaigns for GMES and Beyond
Julio César López and Fabrizio Pirondini, Elecnor Deimos Imaging, Spain

The improvement of computing power and the availability of new Earth Observation missions, such as DEIMOS-1, providing high resolution images (<30m/pixel) on a frequent basis has facilitated the generation of coverages at continental scales. This type of coverages are useful inputs for spatially detailed applications targeting land surface dynamics, such as land cover change or monitoring of agricultural fields or forested patches. In that regard, GMES Space Component - Data Access has made available for its users two Sub-Saharan comprehensive datasets (country coverage and confluence points) in the frame of the Grant Phase and Data Warehouse initiatives. DEIMOS-1 has participated in the provision of both continental datasets, firstly within a consortium and then on its own. Besides, new datasets have been collected after that in order to assure a consistent yearly temporal resolution.
We present in this paper the methodology applied in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 by Elecnor Deimos Imaging when running a yearly imaging campaign over Sub-Saharan Africa with the DEIMOS-1 satellite. This region comprises more than 24 million square kilometers and includes areas with very high occurrence of clouds. Three types of products were generated using DEIMOS-1 multispectral images: country seamless coverage (<20% clouds), 20x20km coverages over the degree confluence points (<5% cloud) and derived value-added products. All products were orthorectified and a sub-pixel geometric accuracy was achieved.
The optimization approach for each campaign is described, tackling the pre-campaign simulation and planning, plan updating according to image acquisition and cloud risk mitigation. In addition, the tools and procedures used for campaign monitoring and assessment are presented. Major campaign results, figures and statistics are detailed. As an example, for the 2011 campaign DEIMOS-1 achieved remarkable results: all countries were covered with less than 20% clouds (including the demanding equatorial countries). Indeed, more than 75% of the Sub-Saharan countries were acquired with less than 5% cloud cover. Moreover, more than 2,000 confluence points were successfully imaged, in spite of the extremely challenging 5% cloud requirement.
Finally, a review of the users and applications of the datasets within GMES/Copernicus is provided and conclusions are drawn as derived by the four consecutive campaigns undertaken so far. Sub-Saharan coverage obtained in 2011

Ogun State, Nigeria: An SDI and Land Administration System built with FOSS (165)
Gavin Fleming

Ogun State in Nigeria started implementation in 2012 of their first digital Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). At its core are new Land Information and Land Administration Systems. A new physical survey reference framework, digital document management system and detailed household field survey are other components. All are brought together with each other and with other Government data holdings through a web portal and desktop tools that are used in dispersed locations in Ogun State and across Government departments.

Data are housed in PostgreSQL with the PostGIS spatial extension and in the case of images, in various file formats. All spatial data is published via Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services using Geoserver and GeoWebCache. Together these comprise the OpenGeo Suite and are all Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). A custom implementation of the 1Map web application, built with php and GeoExt, provides web-based users with a rich, interactive geospatial portal, with search facilities, editing, printing and other useful functionality.

A QGIS plugin, written in Python, was developed to assist with the rapid and accurate capture of beacons and parcels, including bearing and distance (COGO) capture. Editing takes place directly on the SDI database and the results are instantly visible to web portal users. As land transactions and other functionality come online, these will be equally dynamic. Desktop and web users with different roles can thus connect to a central SDI to perform their various roles. Use of the SDI is being promoted across other departments.

This paper will cover the implementation in more detail, including the reasons for using FOSS, challenges and successes and other aspects of a case study. It will also touch on international collaboration (Nigeria-South Africa) and demonstrate how an SDI together with Open Source Software and Open Data can spatialy enable government.

Parallel Session 9.2 (Conf Room 3)
Geospatial Research Reports: Water

Progress in Finalising the “GMES & Africa Action Plan” (GAAP), focusing on Water Resources Management (161)
Paul Cunningham, IIMC International Information Management Corporation, IE

The “GMES & Africa” initiative establishes a long term partnership between European and African stakeholders, accordingly to the Lisbon Declaration, to work together on the development and implementation of Earth Observation (EO) applications based on African requirements. The process is implemented in the wide context of the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership, and in particular, implementation of the Space track of the 8th Africa – EU Srtategic Partners (Science, Information Society, Space) aiming for sustainable development and incremental scientific cooperation.

GMES & Africa strengthens Africa’s capacity and ownership of EO activities and acknowledges the importance of past and present programmes, recognising the need to coordinate actions to avoid duplication, increase synergies and enhance complementarities.

“Bridging Actions for GMES & Africa” (BRAGMA) is co-funded under FP7 to support and facilitate the necessary dialogue to implement the GMES & Africa process, through improved coordination, information flows and dissemination. This work is coordinated with the European Commission (DG CNECT, DEVCO, ENTR) and African Union Commission.

This paper will focus on sharing results from the second of a series of expert working groups meetings bringing together African and European thematic experts to contribute to the finalization of the GMES & Africa baseline study and endorsement of a GMES & Africa Action Plan through consultation with African Member States. The GMES & Africa Workshop on Water Resources Management was held in Abuja, Nigeria, 14 – 15 May 2013.

Integrated Remote Sensing And GIS Techniques For Groundwater Potential Zone Assessment: A Case Study Of Borkena River Basin, Northern Ethiopia (15)
Mesfin Tessema Woldeyes, Geological Survey of Ethiopia (GSE), ET

Satellite data have been widely used in conjunction with Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques in groundwater resource assessment. Satellite data are useful for extracting various thematic maps required for groundwater assessment. In the study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM +) data, and digital elevation models (DEM) from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) along with other collateral data were analyzed to create various factor maps (geomorphology, geology, lineament density, drainage density, elevation, landuse/landcover, soil, rainfall and slope maps) required for groundwater assessment in Borkena River basin, northern Ethiopia. All these thematic maps and their individual classes were then assigned weights according to their relative importance in groundwater occurrence and the corresponding normalized weights were obtained based on the Saaty’s analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The thematic layers were finally integrated using ArcGIS 9.3 software to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. A raster based empirical GIS model conducted using Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method in ArcGIS 9.3 software for integrating the thematic maps. Accordingly, four groundwater potential zones were identified, namely ‘Very good’, ‘good’, ‘moderate’ and ‘poor’. The resulting model was evaluated using water point inventory data and it was found to be in good agreement with the model output. The model result indicated that 15%, 18%, 29% and 38% of the study area is covered by ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘moderate’ and ‘poor’ groundwater potential zones, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that the integrated remote sensing and GIS based approach is a powerful tool for groundwater potential zone assessment in Borkena River basin.

Mapping small scale irrigation farms utilizing GIS technology in North West Province, South Africa (18)
Lobina Palamuleni, Slyvia Tekana , Oladimeji Oladele, North West University, ZA

This paper reports on a study conducted in the North West province, South Africa to map small scale irrigation farms using GIS technology. Farming in the region is challenged by arid conditions characterized by very limited water resource due to high evaporation and erratic rainfall. However, cultivation of crops requires large amount of irrigation water to support harvest. Information on the irrigation type, access to water, GPS coordinate to locate each farm, type of vegetables grown (carrots, spinach, beetroot etc), number of farmers (beneficiaries), total annual production, and distance to market were mapped to evaluate the potential transferable risks and the importance of maintaining proximity between farmers and consumers of the fresh produce. It was found that distances between farms and markets ranged from 60 km to 265 km where most of the farms are not located on or very close to main roads. Market proximity due to fragile and perishable nature of produce translates to quality and maximization of profits. Most significant was that the farms are a preferred cash crop, which can lift poor farmers out of poverty.

Remote Sensing of Vegetation Stress (61)
Esther Omodanisi and Ayobami Salami, Space Applications & Environmental Science Laboratory, Institute of Ecology & Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NG

The study determined the changes in the spectra of vegetation induced by stress. This was with a view to assessing and monitoring the health status of vegetation of the study area. RapidEye multispectral satellite image (5 m) 1B level of processing for 2009 and 2011 were acquired and the processed. Global Positioning System with an accuracy of ± 5m were used to identified stress points on the satellite images. The identified impacted areas were mapped out for the field and image study. Control plot was established in relatively unstressed area. Spectra measurements were taken using hyperspectral Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Handheld2 Spectrometer within a field of view (FOV) of 25°. Spectral indicators were calculated and the relationship between these spectral indices and chlorophyll content of the vegetation were determined. The correlation coefficients of 0.5 and higher were observed in plot B and Plot C of Ogun. Plot C of Ogun of had a range of 0.6 -0.83 rho at p>0.01 for all the indices. The result of the Analysis of Variance identified the best ratio and vegetation indices that significantly differed between less stressed (control) and more stressed (impacted) plots. RedEdge indices had an F-ratio of 4.564 at p<0.01 and 2.731 at p<0.1 for VOG1.The image data analysis showed that there was a direct relationship between different pollution levels and the chlorophyll content of F-ratio 325.8 (p< 0.0001) and 93.36 (p < 0.001) for 2009 and 2011. Also, the relationship between in-situ measurement, image measurement and the chlorophyll content revealed a direct relationship of F-ratio 101.8 (p < 0.0001) for image 2009/field data and 48.65 (p < 0.0001) for image 2011/field data. The study concluded that oil spill had decimated the vegetation and negatively influenced the chlorophyll content and consequently the health status of the vegetation in the study area.

Parallel Session 9.3 (Lrg Briefing Rm)
Collaborative Approaches

Geoinformation for Sustainable Urban Management and Resiliency in Africa (173)
Fernando R. Echavarria, US Dept. of State, US, Marsha Goldberg, Association of American Geographers, US, Carmelle Terborgh, Esri, US, Kirstin Miller, EcoCity Builders, US

The global trend of accelerated urbanization marches unabated around the world, and continues to leave an indelible mark on the African continent. According to the World Bank, the rates of urbanization in Africa are some of the highest in the world. By 2025 more than half of the African population will be urban, and during the next 25 years the urban population will be growing almost twice as fast as the general population, increasing by more the half a billion from 1990 levels (J.L. Venard, Urban Planning and Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa, UNCED Paper no. 5 (AFTES) 1995 cited in World Bank Regional Reports – Africa Region, Spring 2001).
Urbanization presents both opportunities and challenges for Africa’s sustainable development. On the one hand, agglomerations of urban areas presents opportunities in enhanced efficiency in the delivery of services (such as access to the Web, clean water, education, housing, modern energy services, sanitation services, transportation, etc.) to large number of peoples due to their spatial concentration. But the reality is that millions of Africans continue to migrate to cities and end up settling in vast, informal settlements with abysmal conditions, with no access to most basic services. So, even though urban settlement can offer governments one of the most efficient contexts with which to lift and improve the living standards of millions of people, this is not happening in Africa. These conditions pose massive challenges for Sub-Saharan governments, as well as the international community interested in assisting hundreds of millions of Africans find sustainable development solutions to a broad spectrum of socio-economic, environmental and political problems. This includes serious challenges to African governments in terms of governance, political stability and fundamental security.
This presentation addresses the opportunities that geospatial science and technology offers to better manage the many challenges created by urbanization. It discusses geospatial tools, activities and programs that could support the growing African community that is applying information and telecommunication technologies in new and innovative ways. The presentation will discuss modalities of capacity building and pilot project implementation in the context of a public private partnership. The model is to bring together innovative technology companies, government institutions and academic / research NGOs to work together on capacity building and pilot project implementation with concrete, practical solutions. As an example, the presentation will describe an activity entitled Geoinformation for Sustainable Urban Management and Resiliency (GeoSUMR), that incorporates both capacity building activities and a pilot project. GeoSUMR brings together U.S. government agencies such as the U.S. Department of State, private companies such as Esri, and organizations such as the Association of American Geographers, and Ecocity Builders. The presentation will update GeoSUMR activities with other international partners such as the Eye on Earth’s Special Initiative on Community Sustainability and Resilience (CSR) in the hope of identifying new partners and opportunities for collaboration in the African continent.

The UN-SPIDER Programme and Disaster Management-related SDI Support to Developing Countries (283)
Lorant Czaran and Luc St-Pierre, United Nations (OOSA), AT

The United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) was established under the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) in 2006 to develop solutions for access of developing countries highly specialised technologies and to broker knowledge that can be essential in the management of disasters that limit sustainable development.
OOSA currently also o-chairs the United Nations Geographic Information Working Group (UNGIWG) for the period 2013-2015, and is a member of the Steering Committee of the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI). In this context, and in line with its geospatial strategy, OOSA is now strengthening links with the UN-GGIM effort.
Improving actions in disaster management and emergency response through knowledge sharing, institutional strengthening and by building bridges between communities of data/information providers and the various groups of users is a main goal for the programme.
Since inception, this was achieved through advisory support missions (TAM) in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, also in Latin America and the Caribbean, 22 so far. Follow-up actions (capacity building) are regularly conducted based on specific recommendations stemming from the outcomes of TAMs.
An RSO network supports OOSA in this effort, with 15 members to date, contributing to TAMs and capacity building programmes, preparing publications to demonstrate best practices of using space-based and geo-information in disaster management.
The Knowledge Portal is currently serving as the virtual interface of UN-SPIDER. Its Space Application Matrix provides invaluable information on space applications encompassing all phases of the disaster management.
This presentation aims at introducing the audience to the UN-SPIDER pogramme, explain in detail its processes and activities, and show how efforts contribute to national or regional SDI-building efforts as well.

Analysing inter-agency integration for land delivery in Nigeria: data, process and policy integration (40)
Muyiwa Agunbiade and Abbas Rajabifard, University of Melbourne, AU

As revealed through existing knowledge, land as a resource is not currently managed efficiently and effectively. As set out in this paper, determining the level of inter- agency integration is considered an important factors in understanding the inefficiencies and ineffectiveness, especially across agencies and between different levels of government. This is with a view to facilitate spatial enablement through data integration, process integration and policy integration. The research methods include synthesis of past studies and the use of case study approach. It uses as context, Lagos in Nigeria. This approach involves triangulation of mixed methods: interviews and on-line survey. The results revealed limited integration of processes and collaboration of agencies in the management of land for housing production. It concludes that land administration processes do not sufficiently drive the type of data that is collected with consequences for integration of processes and policies.

The Role of "Communities of Practice" in promoting the use and application of Earth Observations (184)
Terence Newby, NEOSS, ZA, Imraan Salojee, DST, ZA, Lulekwa Makapela, NEOSS, ZA

The South African Group on Earth Observations (SA-GEO) has established a number of communities of practice that facilitates the national earth observation community to co-ordinate activities, data discovery, access and applications towards societal benefit areas (SBA's). The National Earth Observation and Space Secretariat (NEOSS) serves as secretariat to SA-GEO in organising and facilitating the activities and events of the various earth observation communities of practice. This paper presents the approach, experiences and practicalities of implementing national communities of practice for earth observations in societal benefit areas. Currently five communities of practice are active with in SA-GEO. Some of these are motivated by active involvement in GEO tasks while others are motivated by participation in national initiatives or programmes such as air quality monitoring system development or land cover mapping programmes. Successful CoP’s are dependent on a number of factors such as motivation around a common goal, sound communications, inclusion of members from the full value chain from data suppliers to application users and decision makers and the existence of a co-ordinating secretariat.

Parallel Session 9.4 (Caucus Room 11)
Google Workshop

See the workshop description. The free workshop seats are limited. To apply for a seat, enroll on your online individual registration form.

Parallel Session 9.5 (Small Briefing Room)
Vectors and Vegetation

Mapping hotspots of vulnerability to vector-borne diseases in East Africa: Lessons for national and regional Spatial Data Infrastructures (134)
Stefan Kienberger, Michael Hagenlocher, Department of Geoinformatics - Z_GIS, University of Salzburg, AT, Jean-Pierre Bizimana, Center for Geographoc Information System and Remote Sensing, National University of Rwanda, CGIS-NUR, RW, Peter Zeil, Department of Geoinformatics - Z_GIS, University of Salzburg, AT

Environmental, including climate change has been stated as being one of the greatest challenges to global health in the current century. It is expected that rising temperatures along with changing precipitation patterns will influence the distribution of vector-borne diseases in East Africa. Malaria free areas, such as the East African highlands, are supposed to be affected in the coming decades. This is caused by changes in climatic factors (e.g. temperature, precipitation) which impact malaria pathogens, but also linked to changes in environmental conditions (e.g. land use changes). Next to that, socioeconomic factors, such as conflict, poverty, access to health care also influence the burden of vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Therefore, novel integrated methods are required to spatially assess the interplay between these different contributing factors. Moreover suitable geo-spatial (i.e., disaggregated) datasets are required to populate such vulnerability indicators.
In the context of the European FP7 research project HEALTHY FUTURES (www.healthyfutures.eu) a holistic risk and vulnerability framework has been developed which guides the assessment of vulnerability to diseases and the identification of ‘underlying causes’ in a changing environment (including societal and climate change). As such, we will present a conceptual approach on how risk and vulnerability towards diseases can be characterised integrating population characteristics as well as providing a link to climate change adaptation options.
Specifically, an innovative workflow for modelling homogeneous regions of vulnerability to VBDs (e.g. malaria, schistosomiasis) in East Africa will be presented. Next to the identification and delineation of vulnerability hotspots, the approach also enables exploration and evaluation of underlying vulnerability conditions. An indicator framework will be presented that has been populated with different publically available geo-spatial datasets rendering socio-economic vulnerability to VBDs at the eastern African scale level. The approach builds on statistical methods for constructing spatial composite indicators and uses regionalization techniques for the modelling of homogeneous vulnerability units. Next to focusing on the workflow as such, this presentation will specifically outline the integration of different socio-economic spatial datasets that have been used for modelling vulnerability to VBDs in the study area. Current opportunities, as well as existing challenges will be highlighted in the presentation which can be taken up for the further development of national and regional spatial data infrastructures (NSDIs). As a vulnerability assessment is a highly integrative task that covers different (i.e., social, economic, environmental, and institutional, etc.) dimensions, the availability of and access to appropriate and consistent geo-spatial datasets is crucial.
The presentation concludes with an outlook on the potentials of WebGIS solutions for the integration and visualization of results, and will provide recommendations for the (further) development and strengthening of NSDIs to support vulnerability assessments in a climate change context.

Improving thrips diversity modeling in East Africa using biophysical variables from remote sensing observations (74)
Tobias Landmann, International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) and Centrum für Internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM), KE, Gladys Mosomtai, International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), KE

Thrips is an insect pest that causes severe harvest losses in maize in East Africa and as such thrips infestations pose a food security problem in the region. Moreover the occurrence of invasive species in East Africa, such as Frankliniella Occidentalis, has recently increased significantly (Sevgan, 2010). The increasing incursion of invasive thrips is largely due to climate change and proliferation of favorable “environmental conditions” for thrips (Sevgan, 2009).
Most SDM suffer from large uncertainties, since mostly globally available climate and topography data sets are used, and habitat and land cover dynamics are usually not considered. Remote sensing variables are increasingly utilized to improve the capacity of Species diversity models (Cord, 2012) in mapping the realized or actual species distribution ranges and their habitat suitability. Essentially continuous, as opposed to categorical, and the length of the time-series remote sensing variable improve SDM results on a regional scale. If the choice of the remote sensing variables, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Vegetation Indices, and reflectance metrics, is selected in accordance with the “site specific” requirements of the species, the model result can further be significantly improved (Cord, 2012). Whilst there are numerous studies on animal and plant species diversity mapping, there is less on insect populations (Bayers, 2012). There are also few SDM studies on insects that use “actual” data on land surface dynamics from remote sensing observations.
In this study Vegetation Index (NDVI, or VI) time-series data from 250-meter MODIS (MOD13 product), spanning the time period from 2000 to 2012, and concurrent 1000-meter Land Surface Temperature (LST) metrics from MODIS (MOD11A product; only the night time LST was considered) are assimilated within the GARP model to estimate spatial diversity patterns of an invasive thrips species, Frankliniella Occidentalis in Kenya. Species reference data was collected on Maize and French bean crops. Apart from the MODIS data, the WORLDclim data (rainfall and temperature gradients) and topography data were used as environmental predictors in the SDM. The GARP model was run using only bio-climatic variables, (denoted as CLIMATE) using bio-climatic data and the VI metrics data (means from 2000 to 2012, denoted as CLIMATE_VI) and using bioclimatic variables and the VI and the LST metrics (denoted as CLIMATE_VI_LST). Partial Receiver Operating Curves (pROC) are used to compare the accuracies of the three model outputs.
The CLIMATE model results show a lesser spatially refined spatial distribution pattern for thrips, when compared to CLIMATE_VI and CLIMATE_VI_LST. The mean pROC score for CLIMATE_VI_LST, for 50 bootstrapped samples, was found to be 1.8, and the mean pROC score for CLIMATE, for the same bootstrapped samples, was 0.97. A score of 0.99 is attained when only the VI data is used in the SDM model.
The pROC scores show that remote sensing variables significantly improve the accuracy of the SDM results, when modeling Frankliniella Occidentalis occurrences in Kenya. We further conclude that both the VI and the LST data metrics should be used in SDM of thrips. Thus site-specific occurrence of thrips is well “measurable” by emissivity (LST) fluxes as well as vegetation chlorophyll contents (VI).

Domestic Water Sources and Cholera Outbreak in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria (143)
Kolawole Hammed Muibi, COPINE/NASRDA, NG, Oye Babatimehin, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Osun State, NG, Ezekiel Onoshi Eguaroje, COPINE/NASRDA, NG

The study examined the sources of domestic water and their proximity to contaminants, analyzed the spatial pattern of cholera from 2001-2011 and modeled areas prone to flooding. It also provided a framework for prediction of cholera outbreak in Ibadan Metropolis. This was with a view to analyzing domestic water sources and its effect on cholera outbreak.
Primary and secondary data were used for this study. Primary data were collected using questionnaire. A handheld Global Positioning System receiver was also used to capture the location of wells, sources of well water contamination and houses surveyed. The secondary data used included the Cholera Report between year 2001- 2011 collected from Ministry of Health, Oyo State, Sport Image (10m resolution), and topographical map (scale of 1:50,000) of the study area. Also, household data was collected from National Bureau of statistics to ascertain the number of household in each LGA of the study area. The Spot Image was used to update the features on the topographical map, while the Cholera report was used to generate spatial pattern graph. Topographical map of the area was georeferenced to WGS 1984 UTM ZONE 31 and was used to capture drainage and contour line which were used for modeling of the areas vulnerable to flooding.
The results show that the dominant sources of water are well and sachet water. Virtually all the sampled wells within the study area changes colour after heavy rain which results from flooding and subsurface flow into wells. The interview revealed that cholera outbreak witnessed so far occurred commonly shortly after heavy rain and flooding. The study also revealed that most of the people dump their refuse inside nearby river which poses a high risk of contamination to well water in the event of flooding. The result of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) used to examine the relationship between the number of cholera cases (dependent variable) and, elevation of well; C1, well water quality; C2, distance of well point to river; C3 and distance of well to sewage facility location; C4 (explanatory variables) also showed that the regression coefficient for above four explanatory variables C1, C2, C3 and C4 in the model are -0.455343, 0.696215, 0.491014 and 0.067728 respectively while R2 = 0.067728. The coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is equal to 0.067728. This means only 6% of the number of cholera cases can be attributed to the well water quality, elevation of well, distance of well to river and sewage system location. The possible pattern of cholera were also established by foreshadowing the pattern backward (from 2011 back to 2001) from the available report using trend line graph. The result of the model for area prone to flooding also showed that area within a buffer zone 100-200m of river are commonly flooded which constitutes major source of contamination to well water. The framework for cholera prediction revealed the upward trend in the whole of five LGAs as being under threat in the near future but with varying degree by using regression equation emanated from the trend line to predict for prevalence up to the year 2020.
In conclusion, findings of this study have shown that cholera transmits through several pathways but the most pronounced are contaminated water and food.

Evaluation de la perte de biomasse dans les exploitations forestières à travers l'identification des trouées d'abattage et des infrastructures de débardages et de préparation par l'utilisation des images satellites (52)
Richard Sufo Kankeu, CIFOR, CM

Le bassin du Congo représente l’un des poumons de la terre grâce aux immenses superficies de forêt vierges qu’il regorge. De nombreux chercheurs ont menées des études notamment dans le domaine de l’évaluation du carbone forestier ou de la perte du couvert forestier due à la déforestation et la dégradation. Ils se sont focalisés sur les inventaires forestiers qui permettent d’évaluer les quantités de stock carbone dans la forêt. La part de l’exploitation forestière dans la dégradation et la déforestation est toujours surévaluée à tord ou à raison. Le traitement et l’analyse des images satellites avant et après l’exploitation peuvent clairement dégager les superficies déforestées ou dégradées par la chaîne de l’exploitation : l’abattage (chablis et zone de chute de l’arbre), le débardage (pistes), la préparation (parcs) et le roulage (routes). Quels outils, matériels et peut-on utiliser dans ce contexte pour avoir de données objectifs et justes ?
Dans ce papier, il question d’identifier les types d’images gratuites nécessaires pour une telle étude (1), d’évaluer les superficies dégradées ou déforestées par l’exploitation forestière (2) et par conséquent évaluer les pertes de biomasse/carbone dans des espaces bien connues (3). Pour arriver à ce fin, il est question des collecter les informations terrains dans les sociétés forestières cibles du sud-est Cameroun, d’acquérir et de traiter les images accessibles, d’identifier les zones affectées et de ressortir les statistiques nécessaires.

Parallel Session 10.1 (Caucus Room 9)
Education Innovations

Changes in GIS Education and applicability to the developing world (56)
Michael Gould, Esri, US

GIS software is evolving, from a desktop box to a constellation of clients accessing services for geodata creation, publication, discovery, processing, visualization and sharing. Therefore GIS education must also evolve to incorporate these new software patterns, and use cases, into the secondary school and university curriculum. Students who are able to collect geodata in their environment with mobile phones, then publish their data and access data from others using multiuser geodatabases, are suddenly able to undertake a whole host of new scientific and profesional tasks.
This talk describes details of this evolution, what Esri is doing to support it, and what are some of the implications for learning GIS in developing regions. These implications range from the lack of computing resources today, to the enormous potential that lies ahead when computing infrastructure does come in the very ner future. Among other benefits will be increased opportunity for entrepreneurship in the geodata and geoservices fields.

Implementing advanced capacity building systems for geospatial information domain in developing countries (54)
Mohamed Rached Boussema, University of Tunis El Manar, TN

In response to a growing need and capacity worldwide, geospatial Information has become an essential component of several applications in many domains. Over the last two decades, new technologies have transformed the availability and accessibility of geospatial information from all sources and boosted its effective use. Geospatial technologies are becoming more and more accessible, user-friendly, and cost-effective, and if successfully implemented, they have great potential likely to sustain social-economic development and to improve decision-making in increasingly complex and growing developing countries.
The achievement of this goal, however, requires that numerous pivotal challenges be met, in order to remain on the track and fully realize the growing possibilities geospatial technologies offer. This is particularly performed through geospatial capacity building policies aiming at ways to increase capacity and reduce the “geospatial” divide. These challenges involve obstacles of improving skills and existing infrastructure, as well as providing a basis for research-oriented activities. They also require review educational strategies to improve the awareness and “literacy” levels of geospatial information and to identify the critical curricula needed to enhance the high level appropriate spectrum of geospatial skills through effective advancements in the implementation of geospatial technology and expertise. It is expected that these high-level skills could successfully influence the use of current and future geospatial technologies in their countries.
Traditional GIS or Remote sensing training contributes little to prepare young researchers and practitioners for the challenges described above. Moreover, geospatial science and technology is not an established field in most universities in developing countries. It has not yet built up a core discipline, and this is apparent in the lack of dedicated curricula. But the recognition of the discipline is evidenced by curriculum changes put in place in the last few years by many of the universities. In addition, areas of priority research should be identified and undertaken on both long term fundamental issues and shorter term applications-orientated issues. Both curricula and research should focus on new themes leading to a real mastering of the discipline such as Geoinformatics, Spatial Data Modelling, Interoperability, Standards, Spatial Data Infrastructures.
Thus, implementing geospatial information capacity building systems will allow the developing countries to make available good researchers, experts and professionals. This explains why there is a need to encourage universities and other research organizations to consider capacity building in geospatial science and technology.
In this context, the paper aims to identify the prevailing lessons learned over the past two decades, the understanding of the factors leading to the implementation of specific geospatial applications in developing countries, the identifying practices and models used to support the mastering of geospatial technologies, and the setting of future capacity building directions. It discusses deeply how can developing countries match correct skill sets and build targeted research programs to create effective progress in geospatial information science and technology.

Spatial enablement through digital geomedia: new opportunities and new challenges for the educational sector (72)
Detlef Kanwischer and Uwe Schulze, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, DE, Inga Gryl, University of Koblenz-Landau, DE

Due to the revolution in information technology, the pace and capacity for geoinformation being generated, processed and globally communicated has grown tremendously. As a good example serves the variety of worldwide initiatives within the field of spatial data collection for the development of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI), which has made Al Gore’s dream of a “Digital Earth” a bit more true. The availability of a SDI serves not only as a professional tool for the spatial decision-making on a governmental or commercial level. In fact, digital globes, GIS and GPS have gained a secure place in our everyday lives during the last ten years. Digital geomedia are a new multidisciplinary language; a language which, when connecting web 2.0 applications to GIS, enables even non-experts and laymen to design interactive maps carrying many different forms of spatial information such as pictures, texts or statistics. Nowadays multiple realities and diverse forms of geoinformation are being offered as well as a map-based online discussion. These applications support, among other things, social learning and enable the public to participate in different socio-economical contexts and sectors for the needs of spatial planning processes. This means that during the last years, GIS has started to be used as a new form of political participation in spatial planning processes within the framework of Participatory GIS (PGIS).
Thus, an essential component for the empowerment of the indigenous capacity for using PGIS is spatial citizenship education. A spatial citizen is a citizen who is able to reflect critically on medial spatial representations such as maps, GIS, and GPS; he/she can also communicate with others via spatial presentations in order to participate in decision-making about spatial planning, as is the case in PGIS.
Since the use of digital geomedia is a basic cultural technique, education must strongly support the empowerment of spatial citizens using these instruments. Teachers whose goal is to educate their pupils with a spatial citizenship approach need to be trained to do so. Thus, there is a strong need for a curriculum for teacher training and teacher education with regard to the spatial citizenship approach. In the EU-Project SPACIT, we are developing a curriculum for in-service-teacher-training in the area of spatial citizenship education.
In a first step, this presentation will introduce this spatial citizenship approach. In a second step different aspects of geospatial competence modelling for the educational sector will be discussed before different domains of competences for a curriculum of spatial citizenship in teacher education will be presented. Afterwards, we will explain the development of the curriculum and then will conclude by suggesting the future research needed within this field.

Promoting spatial thinking in natural resource management through community mapping: the case of urban and rural secondary schools of Rwanda (130)
Brian Tomaszewski and Anthony Vodacek, Rochester Institute of Technology, US, Gaspard Rwanyiziri, Centre for Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing (CGIS), National University of Rwanda, RW, Jean Chrysostome Sehene, Rwanda Environmental Conservation Organisation, RW

Development of spatial thinking skills is significantly under-represented in Rwandan secondary education. In this presentation, we prevent an overview of a two year Innovation for Education (IfE) project designed to address this challenge through natural resource mapping projects conducted by Rwandan secondary students. Our approach is novel in that we are making a particular emphasis on (1) utilizing Free and Open Source (FOS) geospatial technology vs. commercial geospatial technology for long term project sustainability, (2) empowering students to become community advocates; and (3) looking at how FOS geospatial technology can be used for developing spatial thinking skills. To the best of our knowledge, the approach has not been piloted in Rwanda. Inspiration for our project comes from the use of “citizen scientist" projects to increase environmental awareness in the United States. The rationale for our approach comes from the success of community-based mapping projects with FOS geospatial technology such as Ushahidi and My Community, Our Earth (myCOE). By mapping natural resources via free and open source technologies, students will learn accountability & empowerment and address climate change and environment issues. Our emphasis on recruitment of under-served students will foster inclusive education and our emphasis on spatial thinking skills for problem solving will ultimately promote effective teaching and learning, skill development and use of appropriate geospatial and other technologies in education for secondary school-level students and teachers. We will also discuss metrics we have developed for Monitoring and Evaluations (M&E) of our project goals and application of a spatial thinking ability test (STAT) to measure increases in student spatial thinking ability. Ultimately, we believe our project will create new, generalizable knowledge on spatial thinking teaching and learning facilitated via FOS geospatial technology that can serve as a guide for implementation in other educational contexts across Rwanda and beyond.

Parallel Session 10.2 (Caucus Room 10)
Vulnerability Assessment

Modeling Changes in the Frequency of Armed-conflict Events Relative to the Regional Distribution of High-frequency Radios Comprising an Early-warning Network (86)
Robert Franssen, USC Spatial Sciences Institute, US

This paper explores the quantitative shift in the density of armed-conflicts relative to the regional distribution of high-frequency radios in Central Africa. By using geographically weighted regression testing and polynomial modeling, we propose using GIS to explore the correlation of violence with various communication infrastructures. By leveraging the data derived from geographically referenced trends in armed-conflicts against rural communities, regional planners can develop plans for new telecommunications infrastructure in an effort to report injustice, gather intelligence, and reduce conflict. The Lord’s Resistance Army has traditionally attacked rural, isolated communities in Central Africa.
The lack of communication-infrastructure leads to inconsistent reporting, delayed military response, and prolonged attacks against multiple villages thereby increasing subsequent casualties. Since 2009, thirty-eight high-frequency radios have been networked to provide “early-warning” capabilities to communities within the LRA’s area of operations. Radios collect and transmit LRA-related information to other communities as well as military and support organizations. Since their implementation, a reduction in violence has been observed. Geographically weighted regression testing and polynomial modeling are used to explore the correlation between the reduction of armed-conflicts and their proximity to the early-warning radio network. Resulting functions may be used to help determine optimal radio placements and predict a network’s effectiveness elsewhere.

Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools (213)
Michael Budde, James Rowland, Gabriel Senay and Chris Funk, US Geological Survey / EROS, US, Greg Husak, University of California Santa Barbara, US, Tamuka Magadzire, University of California Santa Barbara - FEWS NET, BW, James Verdin, US Geological Survey / Eros, US

Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of utilizing remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pest infestation, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply these monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels.

Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of this increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on the implementation of a simplified surface energy balance model (SSEB), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives.

USGS FEWS NET has implemented a simplified surface energy balance model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for monitoring agricultural food production and driving crop water balance models. We present a series of derived rainfall products and provide an update on efforts to improve satellite-based estimates.

We also present advancements in monitoring tools, namely, the Early Warning eXplorer (EWX) and interactive rainfall and NDVI time series viewers. The EWX is a data analysis tool that provides the ability to rapidly visualize multiple remote sensing datasets and compare standardized anomaly maps and time series. The interactive time series viewers allow users to analyze rainfall and NDVI time series over multiple spatial domains. New and improved data products and more targeted analysis tools are a necessity as food security monitoring requirements expand and resources become limited.

Estimating the probability of crop productivity deficit in food insecure countries (270)
Ferdinando Urbano, Felix Rembold, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, IT, Francois Kayitakire, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, IT, Michele Meroni, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, IT, Michel Verstraete, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, IT, Giancarlo Pini, World Food Program, Analysis and Nutrition Service, IT

Food security in Sahelian countries is one of the major challenges that the international community has been facing in the last decades. This arid region is characterized by high environmental and social vulnerability that can turn crop production deficit into humanitarian catastrophes, as recently happened in 2012 in Sahel. Monitoring crop conditions along the cropping season is thus a key factor to plan timely mitigation measures in dry years. Early warning systems widely use satellite remote sensing as reference technique to derive near real-time information on crop conditions over large areas. This information is integrated with other agro-ecological and socio-economical information (e.g. market prices, agricultural statistics) to analyse the current situation and take informed decisions. We present a synthetic index based on low resolution and freely available satellite data to quantitatively assess the probability of a productivity deficit at harvest time. It is based on the cumulate of a vegetation index (the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation, FAPAR) from the start of the season, projected into the future (end of the season) according to the information recorded in the past years. One of the strengths of this index is that it does not need any technical interpretation to be understood and can be evaluated directly by national food security analysts, effectively linking science-driven tools to decision making processes. This index can thus help to estimate the risk of potential food crisis before these occur. The proposed method is applied to West Africa in 2011 and its reliability is assessed along the progress of the season. Results indicate that this index can provide early warning information and can be effectively used as an operational tool to support a better decision making in case of drought events leading to food insecurity.

CARAD, an operational approach to reduce the vulnerability of the habitat of Djibouti city (247)
Samatar Abdi Osman, CERD, DJ, Andrea Zanon, World Bank, US, Bezunesh Tamru, Universite paris 8, FR, Sergio Mora, World Bank, CR

It is not possible to separate physical vulnerability and social vulnerability in the Least Developed Countries. The friability of habitat and poor construction methods widely exposed populations. The situation of the Djiboutian capital is particularly illuminating on this subject. Various problems accumulate in the regional metropolis, such as a site prone to flooding, extended dry multi-annual droughts that result in water scarcity for agriculture and domestic uses; frequent intense flash floods with a variable but approximate recurrence of 7 years; frequent earthquakes ranging in magnitude between 4 and 5 on the Richter scale ,volcanism originating along the Afar rift area; and fires fueled by droughts and exacerbated by precarious construction materials intense migratory flows, intrinsic poverty of the national population and mostly precarious habitat. Spring floods in 2013 have highlighted these phenomena. Djibouti’s disaster risk vulnerability is also worsened by limited water resource management, insufficient land use planning, non-systematic building codes enforcement, as well as by the country’s limited capacity to prevent and respond effectively when a natural disaster occurs.
However, however, in order to reduce chronic vulnerability of the capital city to natural hazards, a powerful tool has been developed. This tool called CARAD (Comprehensive Approach to Risk Assessment in Djibouti) used to produce technological and scientific methodology and information platform, composed of tools for the evaluation and monitoring of risk derived from natural hazards in Djibouti, and at various territorial levels. The platform’s tools for risk analysis will be designed to support risk reduction awareness, public and private investments, emergency management, and financial risk retention/transfer strategies through the development of cost-benefit analysis, land use planning, monitoring risk indicators, early warning and on-time loss assessment mechanisms

Evolving Geospatial Information System For Public Secondary School Management, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria (208)
Kayode Odedare and Adedayo Alagbe, Federal School of Surveying, Oyo, State, NG

The focus of this paper is on the creation of Public Secondary Information System using Geospatial Information System. The study aims to assess public secondary schools facilities as it concerns, the state of education in Ife-Central Local Government of Nigeria. The development of geospatial database information system of public secondary schools in the project area was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target. The objectives of the study were to design and create database for the public secondary schools, take inventory of all the existing facilities and analyze the future requirement using GIS, collect geometric and attribute data of each school, examine and identify the spatial location of public secondary schools in the study area, and to define service area for public secondary schools in the study area. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of public secondary schools within the project area. The Google Earth imagery of the study area was clipped out from Google Earth and updated. Spatial database and a digital road network were created for the generated entities. The analysis of this work was carried out using ArcGIS 10. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that none of the schools have access to Internet. Only five (5) of the schools have a functioning library, Four (4) of the schools have access to computer laboratory and Two (2) of the schools were also found to lack Elementary Science Laboratory as stipulated in the National Policy on Education. Almost all the schools classes were overcrowded. With Network Analysis, it was also observed that that some settlements have clustered schools and not evenly distributed.

Parallel Session 10.3 (Caucus Room 11)
Change Assessment

Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Landuse change in the Cocoa Belt of Southwestern Nigeria (44)
Adebayo Ojo, African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education, ILE-IFE, NG

Cocoa is one of the most important cash crops grown largely (more than 80%) by the small-scale farmers of the region. Thus, its extensive pattern of cultivation has brought about opening up of newly uncultivated forest areas, settlement expansion and environmental degradation. This study used geo-spatial techniques based on multi-source imageries to enhance the utilization of images with coarser resolutions in landuse analysis of southwestern Nigeria. The objective of the study is to evaluate the variations in landuse characterization with multispectral images. The remotely sensed data sets used included Landsat TM 1986, 1991 and 2002 imageries. The tonal values recorded in the images with the features on the ground were validated by ground truthing. The data from ground truthing were combined with visual image interpretation for “supervised” classification. The classes defined and analyzed included “built-up area’’, “bare rock’’, “farmland’’, secondary forest regrowth’’ and “water body’’. The results show that no concerted effort has been directed towards quantifying and assessing the spatial pattern extent of deterioration components of the environment as a result of mismanagement of landuse in the cocoa belt region. The study confirms the relevance of the growing interest in the use of geo-spatial techniques for landuse analysis.

Assessing Sediment Pollution off Deltaic Region using Sediment Budget as a Tool - A simple geospatial approach using Satellite Data (64)
Pravin Kunte, National Institute of OceanographyIN, Mahender Kotha, Goa University, IN

There is increasing acceptance that suspended sediments represents an important diffuse source pollutant in coastal waters, due to their role in governing the transport and fate of many substances viz., nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides and other organic contaminants and because of their impacts on benthic plants and animals. Sediment pollution arresting strategies therefore frequently need to include provision for the control of mobilization and delivery of excess sediments. The sediment budget concept provides appropriate framework for managing and controlling of diffuse source sediment pollution by identifying the key sources, intermediate stores and the likely sinks and help to assess impact of upstream mitigation strategies on downstream suspended sediment and associated contaminant fluxes. Geospatial technologies and free availability of satellite data provide solutions with simple and better understanding of such issues with greater environmental and economic impacts. The understanding of the sedimentological functioning of these units as sinks and sources of terrestrial matter helped in understanding the propagation of pollutants in the marine system. The present paper discusses the utility of the sediment budget for assessing sediment pollution explaining methodology and results specific to the deltaic region from India. Finally, it suggests the concept the sediment budget as a practical framework to support the design and implementation of sediment control programmes aimed at reducing pollution by fine sediment for understanding the propagation and thereby arresting pollutants in the marine system.

The Significant Contributions of Remote Sensing and GIS In Understanding Human ActivitiesaAnd Development In Between Two Towns In Cameroon (171)
Mengue Mbom Alex and Atangana Alima Bernadette, University of Yaounde I, CM

The need to sustain lives and to improve on the existential living conditions for the present and future generations imposes the need for Africans to elaborate strategies to improve the environment, the degradation of biodiversity, advance health, social welfare and wellbeing for their survival. These strategies offers some immediate solutions to the challenging problems of the communities such as poverty, diseases, environmental degradation, scarcity of resources and underdevelopment but can also impact negatively in the long run on the lives and living conditions of Africans. Neighboring environing areas to towns offers an adequate context for case study in view of advancing solutions which can enable urban and rural communities develop themselves better. This work shows that, the use of remote sensing and GIS enable users to analyze the causes and consequences related to the over-exploitation of natural resources between the towns of Yaounde and Mbalmayo in Cameroon. Also, the tools serve as means for education, information and for decision making for durable development in Africa.

Land-use and Landscape Pattern Changes around Holeta, Ethiopia (223)
Melakeneh Gelet Gedefaw, Horn of Africa Regional Environment Centre/Network (HoAREC/N), ET

A study on the land-use/land-cover pattern changes, spatio-temporal landscape modification, forest degradation risk and landscape disturbance index was made around the Holeta-Berga watershed in Ethiopia. The dynamics and pattern of changes for a period of 33 years (1973-2006) were analysed using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The total area of built-up and crop land increased from 4382.7 ha (4.35%) to 12198.02 ha (12.3%) and from 33144.3 ha (32.93%) to 62916. 02 ha (62.51%), respectively, during this period. On the other hand, the extent of forest cover decreased at the rate of 546.32 ha yr-1 from 22549.6 ha (22.4%) to 4521 ha (4.49%) and the extent of grassland decreased from 37416.5 ha (37.17%) to 17437.2 ha (17.33%) during the same period. The landscape of the study area showed transformation on composition. The mean patch size index of forest cover and grassland decreased from 10 ha to 1.11 ha and 17.4 ha to 0.87 ha, respectively. In relation to this, the landscape configuration change indicators such as the interspersion-juxtaposition index increased in crop land from 65.16% to 83.58%, and decreased in grassland from 57.685 to 34.74%. Shape complexity of the study site also increased in each of the types of land-use/land-cover classes in terms of area weighted mean fractal dimension, except grassland. It is revealed that an extent of 981.05 ha of the study area is under high degradation risk and 8378.58 ha is under medium to high disturbance scales. Most of the land-use/land-cover conversions and landscape pattern changes are the results of unscientifically planned resource utilization and management programmes. It is important to understand the spatio-temporal changes of the landscape pattern and land-use/land-cover changes to implement reliable and sustainable land-use and development programmes.

Parallel Session 10.4 (Large Briefing Room)

EIS-Africa Member Meeting
See the meeting description.

Parallel Session 10.5 (Small Briefing Room)

AARSE Member Meeting
See the meeting description.

Parallel Session 11.1 (Caucus Room 9)
Capacity Building

SDI Primer for Non-GI Decision-makers (234)
Bruce McCormack, European Umbrella Organisatoin for Geographic Information, NL

The presentation will elaborate on a 'book' which I will be producing which sets out to provide a primer for non-geographical information aware decision-makers in developing countries. The main focus is on Spatial Data Infrastructures at a national level and would cover such issues as what is spatial data, what are the benefits of having an SDI, what can SDIs not achieve, what happens if a country does not have an SDI, how does an SDI relate to eGovernment and ICT programmes, who should take the lead in establishing an SDI, what can be done if the very top level decision-makers are not fully supportive of the establishment of an SDI, what is the likely cost associted with the establishment of an SDI, what 'low hanging fruit' might exits etc.
The primer aims to use non-technical language wherever possible and if technical terms are needed then to explain them as far as possible using everyday English. SDI examples will be given.

Integration Of Space Technology In Capacity Building For Sustainable Development Economy (45)
Adebayo Ojo, African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education, ILE-IFE, NG, Francis Adesina, Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NG

The use of space technology products has brought success stories of the economies of many nations of the world today. Nigeria has made good effort to be in this community of Nations who produce space data and provide space-based services.
The advent of space technology has changed the way resources are managed. It has revolutionized the development and use of technology in handling data acquisition, management and transfer as well as sharing. With space-based technology, it is now possible to arrive at informed decisions in socio-economic development planning. The use of space-based resources thus has the potential to impact many areas of socio-economic development including food security issues, energy, resource inventory and management, environmental monitoring, healthcare delivery, infrastructural development, disaster prevention and rapid response in emergencies, defence and security. It is also capable of enhancing Nigeria’s commitment towards global partnership to address global challenges such as hunger and diseases and promote peace, education, human rights, gender equality and environmental sustainability. Hence, concerted is needed to put space resources in the mainstream of tools for the development of the various sectors of the nation’s economy. Therefore, space technology underscores need for deliberate effort of innovative and cost effective solutions for sustainable development by providing a unique opportunity to balance consumption and production, in other to ensure sustainability of the global environment.
From Geoconservation and Geoheritage to Sustainable Development: Strategies and Perspectives in Geospatial Framework (95)
Mahender Kotha, IN, Pravin Kunte, National Institute of Oceanography, IN
Geoconservation is related to a new social responsibility towards the use of Earth resources. In spite of this general approach, geoconservation is more focused on the management of those geological elements with exceptional scientific, educational, touristic or cultural value - the geological heritage represented by geosites. The geoconservation is characterised as an emerging geoscience within Earth and Space Sciences, where scientific data and knowledge is submitted to current validation procedures as in other geosciences. Decision making has become more informed and scientific with the rapid advancement in computing resulting Geospatial Technology (GT) (an integration of GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing) has emerged strongly with diverse applications. GTs provides reliable, seamless and synoptic nature of data as well as tools for integration of information for analysis, which is very much needed in the management and monitoring of geosites. However, the availability of trained and skilled personnel for the maximum potential exploitation of this technology is an interesting problem particularly for the developing nations in Asia and Africa. The application of this technology is also expected to grow and become more diversified in coming years. Therefore, there is an urgent need to introduce GT in education system for its wider understanding which also needs of well thought of plans for broader acceptability and awareness regarding geospatial technology for development of human resource through training and education. Education performs a key role in the adaptation of the technology because it is necessary that the technology is used to its maximum potential for a sustainable socio-economic development of the country. The Geospatial Technology will require adjustment across multiple domains of education and research. This paper discusses the necessity of formal education Geospatial Technology in India with respect to existing programmes and facilities provided by various institutions in the country. Further, the potential application of GTs in Geoconservation and Geoheritage have been thoroughly discussed the paper.

More Space For The Congress (46)
Lami Ali-Fadiora, Adebayo Ojo, and Kayode Adepoju, African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education, ILE-IFE, NG

If our decision makers are to play a successful role in contributing to development of their states, they must be fully informed, inspired and convinced that application of space technology can bring an end to the real problems of man and society. While the problems are always discussed in most fora, lasting solutions are difficult to come by. This paper seeks to engage decision makers in space industry. Generally, what influences decision makers: prior education, mass media, expert advice and public reaction. The paper discussed how these four channels could be utilized to engage decision makers in space industry, and so doing engage the public.

Parallel Session 11.2 (Caucus Room 10)
Forest Assessment

Mapping Forest Degradation Caused By A Recent Increase Of Charcoal Production In Southern Somalia (271)
Felix Rembold, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, IT, Michele Bolognesi, University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), NL, Ugo Leonardi and Simon M. Oduori, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Somalia Water and Land Information Management (FAO-SWALIM) Project, KE, Anton Vrieling, University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), NL Hussein Gadain, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Somalia Water and Land Information Management (FAO-SWALIM) Project, KE

Following more than 20 years of civil unrest, environmental information for Southern Somalia is scarce while there is clear evidence that the war economy fuelled by the conflict is rapidly depleting the country’s natural resources and especially the woody biomass. Wood charcoal production is one of the most relevant businesses supporting war regimes such as the extreme Islamist group Al Shabaab, which has ruled in Southern Somalia from 2006 to 2012 and is still occupying large areas. In this study we use very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery of February 2013 for developing a semi-automatic mapping method of charcoal production sites as a proxy of tree loss over a large woody area along the Juba river in Southern Somalia. The proposed methodology allows rapid mapping of the areas hit by the high level of charcoal production reported in 2013 by the United Nations Monitoring Group and change analysis is done for subsets of the total area for which earlier imagery is available. The results are crucial for understanding the exact dimension and impact of charcoal production in Southern Somalia and are a first step towards the development of a charcoal production monitoring system.

Rwanda Forest Cover Mapping Using High Resolution Aerial Photographs (29)
Jean Nduwamungu, Elias Nyandwi, Jean Damascene Mazimpaka, Theodomir Mugiraneza, Adrie Mukashema, Gaspard Rwanyiziri, and Ernest Uwayezu, National University of Rwanda, RW, Vital Nzabanita, Consultant, RW

The Government of Rwanda aims at making forestry one pillar of the economic development. In this regard, the vision 2020, which contains major targets that have been set by the government to be achieved by year 2020, fixed 30% as the target to be attained in terms of national forest cover. There is need therefore to monitor constantly reforestation achievements in order to make sure that vision 2020 targets are met. This paper reports on a forest mapping assignment carried out to update the forest cover map of Rwanda including all forested areas of at least 0.25 hausing largely high resolution aerial photographs taken during 2008 aerial survey mission by Swedesurvey. Several hints of visual image interpretation for forest classification were used in order to ease the extraction of forest polygons. After ground truthing (fieldwork confirmation of different forest cover classes) throughout the country, five forest classes in natural forests and thirteen classes in forest plantations were adopted and digitized, cleaned and validated as forest polygons from the orthophotos using Desktop ArcGIS software. The decision on the forest canopy cover was guided by the status indicator matrix grid showing the levels of forest canopy cover from 10% to 90%. Thus, the forest maps were produced from Country to sector levels. In general, forest plantations (>= 0.25 ha) covered 43% of total forest cover including shrubland or 81% of total forest cover excluding shrubland. Eucalyptus plantations were dominant making up 89% of all forest plantations in the country. In terms of national forest coverage, the mapped forests (>= 0.25 ha) excluding shrubland represent now 16% of the total country area. However, one should bear in mind that this is the situation of 2008 and therefore adding up reforestation achievements since 2008 and the less than 0.25ha forest plots would considerably reduce the gap to achieve the 30% forest cover of Rwanda vision 2020.

Predicting Forest Above-Ground Biomass Carbon Using Object Based Analysis of Very High Spatial Resolution Satellite Images (193)
Tenaw Workie, WolloUniversity, ET, Y.A. Hussin an L.M. van Leeuwen, University of Twente, NL

The potentials and limitations of very high spatial resolution images for aboveground biomass (AGB) carbon estimation are unknown and methods are not developed. This research was designed to develop a method that predicts AGB carbon at the individual tree level using object-based analysis of very high resolution QuickBird satellite images and in situ diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements. This study was based on the fact that, crown projected areas (CPA) are strongly correlated to DBH (Shimano 1997). Assuming that CPAs are delineated with higher accuracy, a spatial model that predicts AGB carbon can be developed using in situ DBH measurements and allometric equations. The DBH (1.3 m) of sample coniferous and broadleaf trees was measured and converted to AGB and then to carbon. The panchromatic and pan-sharpened QuickBird satellite images were processed through object-based analysis to derive the CPA of coniferous and broadleaf trees and then followed by an accuracy assessment. The developed model predicted AGB carbon stock and linearly explained about 58% and 55% of the variances for coniferous and broadleaf trees, respectively. Errors of CPAs resulted from over- and under-segmentation, sampling errors, and allometric errors as well as uncertainties in the developed model caused by structural errors.

2Dynamique prospective des écosystèmes forestiers classés au Bénin: quelles perspectives pour une utilisation durable (239)
Vincent Oladokoun Agnila Orekan, Djafarou Abdoulaye, Cossi Jean Houndagba, and Brice Sinsin, University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), BJ

La dynamique de l’occupation du sol au cours de ces dernières décennies est marquée par une nette réduction des formations naturelles au profit des formations anthropiques. Les multitudes études réalisées à ce jour se sont prioritairement limitées à une analyse diachronique par les approches intégrées impliquant les techniques d’analyse spatiale combinée au système d’information géographique (SIG). Outre l’analyse diachronique de l’imagerie satellitale LANDSAT s’étendant des années 1980 à 2010 et l’exécution des transects en milieu très anthropisé appuyées d’observations directes et d’inventaires spécifiques, la présente étude esquisse une analyse prospective de cette dynamique en combinant les enquêtes socioéconomiques à un essai de modélisation à l’échéance 2050. Les résultats confirment une régression effrénée des formations naturelles forestières voire la disparition de la diversité biologique au profit des unités anthropisées. Ces constats ont été avérés dans les écosystèmes forestiers classés protégées du Centre Bénin. La simulation de la variation en superficie des unités d’occupation du sol à l’échéance 2050 présage d’une régression alarmante et continuelle si des mesures conséquentes ne sont pas mises en œuvre. Des méthodes durables d’exploitation et de conservation des ressources naturelles méritent d’être proposées pour une utilisation durable des écosystèmes forestiers classés aux fins d’un développement harmonieux.

Parallel Session 11.3 (Caucus Room 11)

Towards a Safe and Secure Africa

See the workshop description.

Parallel Session 11.4 (Large Briefing Room)

GSDI Technical & Legal Committee Meetings

See the meeting descriptions.

Parallel Session 11.5 (Small Briefing Room)

GSDI Societal & Outreach Committee Meetings

See the meeting descriptions.

Plenary Session Astracts

Wednesday Morning Plenary Session (Conf Room 2)

Information is King: A layered approach to making more informed decisions, faster
Andrea Smith, Digital Globe

Having access to content is only part of the answer, you need to have the right information to make the right decision. From base-maps to mineral-maps, environmental analysis to changes in the political landscape, learn how customers and partners leverage DigitalGlobe solutions to address real world problems affecting Africa. A continent diverse in its countries, people, environment and wealth, understand how satellite derived geospatial information can help solve the many complex issues  impacting so many people, their businesses and way of life. Using DigitalGlobe’s industry leading capabilities this presentation will demonstrate real world examples of how customers leverage our content, information, technology and expertise to gain actionable insight.